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BIOTA [higher level phylogeny after Williams et al. 2012; age constrain after Hedges 2009a; maximum clade ages after Paleobiology Database 2017]
- BACTERIA [higher level phylogeny after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009a and Lang et al. 2013; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
-- Synergistaceae
-- Caldisericaceae
-- AQUIFICAE [phylogeny after L'Haridon et al. 2006; phylogenetic position after Oshima et al. 2012]
--- Desulfurobacteriaceae
--- Hydrogenothermaceae
--- Aquificaceae
-- Dictyoglomaceae [phylogenetic position after Nishida et al. 2011]
-- Thermodesulfobiaceae
-- THERMOTOGAE [phylogeny after Bhandari & Gupta 2014]
--- Petrotogaceae
--- Kosmotogaceae
--- Thermotogaceae
--- Fervidobacteriaceae
-- Deferribacteraceae
-- Chrysiogenaceae [phylogenetic position after Bini et al. 2011]
-- FUSOBACTERIA
--- Leptotrichiaceae
--- Fusobacteriaceae
-- TERRABACTERIA [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
--- DEINOCOCCI [phylogeny after Albuquerque et al. 2005]
---- Thermaceae
---- DEINOCOCCALES
----- Deinococcaceae
----- Trueperaceae
--- FIRMICUTES [phylogeny after Davis et al. 2013 and Morotomi et al. 2012; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
---- Acholeplasmataceae
---- Anaeroplasmataceae
---- Syntrophomonadaceae
---- Thermoanaerobacteriaceae
---- Peptostreptococcaceae
---- Tissierellaceae [phylogenetic position after Alauzet et al. 2014]
---- Eubacteriaceae
---- Coprobacillaceae [phylogenetic position after Kageyama & Benno 2000]
---- Proteinivoracaceae
---- Clostridiaceae
---- Peptoniphilaceae [phylogenetic position after Johnson et al. 2014]
---- Oscillospiraceae
---- Peptococcaceae
---- Heliobacteriaceae
---- Natranaerobiaceae
---- Thermolithobacteraceae
---- Haloplasmataceae
---- Erysipelotrichaceae
---- Turicibacteraceae
---- Alicyclobacillaceae
---- Paenibacillaceae
---- Planococcaceae
---- Sporolactobacillaceae
---- Bacillaceae
---- Limnochordaceae
---- Symbiobacteriaceae [phylogenetic position after Shiratori-Takano et al. 2014]
---- Caldicoprobacteraceae
---- Christensenellidae [phylogenetic position after Morotomi et al. 2012]
---- Lachnospiraceae
---- Defluviitaleaceae [phylogenetic position after Jabari et al. 2012]
---- Ruminococcaceae
---- Gracilibacteraceae
---- Thermoactinomycetaceae
---- Pasteuriaceae
---- HALANAEROBIALES
----- Halanaerobiaceae
----- Halobacteroidaceae
---- Mycoplasmataceae
---- ENTOMOPLASMATALES
----- Entomoplasmataceae
----- Spiroplasmataceae
---- NEGATIVICUTES [phylogeny after Campbell et al. 2015]
----- Veillonellaceae
----- Acidaminococcaceae
----- SELENOMONADALES
------ Sporomusaceae
------ Selenomonadaceae
---- Staphylococcaceae
---- Listeriaceae
---- Aerococcaceae
---- Carnobacteriaceae
---- Enterococcaceae
---- Streptococcaceae
---- Lactobacillaceae
---- Leuconostocaceae
--- CHLOROBACTERIA [phylogeny after Gupta et al. 2013]
---- Dehalococcoidaceae [phylogenetic position after Löffler et al. 2013]
---- Caldilineaceae
---- Anaerolineaceae
---- Ardenticatenaceae [phylogenetic position after Kawaichi et al. 2010]
---- Thermoflexaceae [phylogenetic position after Dodsworth et al. 2014]
---- KTENODOBACTERIA
----- Thermogemmatisporaceae
----- KTEDONOBACTERIALES
------ Ktedonobacteriaceae
------ Thermosporotrichaceae
---- THERMOMICROBI
----- Sphaerobacteraceae
----- Thermomicrobiaceae
---- CHLOROFLEXI
----- Herpetosiphonaceae
----- Kallotenuaceae [phylogenetic position after Cole et al. 2013]
----- CHLOROFLEXALES
------ Roseiflexaceae
------ CHLOROFLEXINEAE
------- Chloroflexaceae
------- Oscillochloridaceae
--- CYANOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Ponce-Toledo et al. 2017 and Schirrmeister et al. 2011]
---- Gloeobacteraceae
---- Entophysalidaceae [phylogenetic positiona after Silva 2011]
---- Stichosiphonaceae
---- Ammatoideaceae
---- Borziaceae
---- Coleofasciculaceae
---- Desertifilaceae
---- Microcoleaceae
---- Homoeothrichaceae
---- Xenococcaceae
---- Phormidiaceae
---- Oscillatoriaceae
---- Romeriaceae
---- Schizotrichaceae
---- Pseudanabaenaceae
---- Chroococcaceae
---- Merismopediaceae
---- Spirulinaceae
---- Microcystaceae
---- Aphanothecaceae
---- Prochloraceae
---- Dermocarpellaceae
---- Synechococcaceae
---- Cyanothrichaceae
---- Leptolyngbyaceae
---- Heteroleibleiniaceae [phylogenetic position after Bohunická et al. 2011]
---- Coelosphaeriaceae
---- Gomphosphaeriaceae
---- Cyanobacteriaceae
---- Gomontiellaceae
---- Cyanothecaceae
---- Acaryochloridaceae
---- Hydrococcaceae
---- Hyellaceae
---- Chroococcidiopsidaceae
---- HETEROCYSTEAE [phylogeny after Gugger & Hoffmann 2004 and Komárek et al. 2014; taxonomy after Komárek et al. 2014]
----- Borzinemataceae
----- Loriellaceae
---- Cyanomargaritaceae [phylogenetic position after Shalygin et al. 2017]
----- Chamaesiphonaceae
----- Rivulariaceae
----- Scytonemataceae
----- Godleyaceae [phylogenetic position after Novis & Visnovsky 2011]
----- Tolypothrichaceae [phylogenetic position after Novis & Visnovsky 2011]
----- Stigonemataceae
----- Symphyonemataceae
----- Microchaetaceae
----- Gloeotrichiaceae [phylogenetic position after Komárek & Mareš 2011]
----- Aphanizomenonaceae
----- Nostocaceae
----- Chlorogloeopsidaceae
----- Hapalosiphonaceae
----- Nostochopsaceae
----- Mastigocladaceae
--- ACTINOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Sen et al. 2014]
---- NITRILIRUPTORIDAE
----- Nitriliruptoraceae [phylogenetic position after Sorokin et al. 2009]
----- Egicoccaceae [phylogenetic position after Zhang et al. 2016a]
----- Euzebyaceae
----- Egibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Zhang et al. 2016b]
---- ACIDIMICROBIALES
----- Iamiaceae [phylogenetic position after Kurahashi et al. 2009]
----- Acidimicrobiaceae
---- Coriobacteriaceae
---- RUBROBACTERIDAE
----- Rubrobacteraceae
----- THERMOLEOFILIDAE
------ Thermoleophilaceae [phylogenetic position after Yakimov et al. 2003]
------ SOLIRUBROBACTERALES
------- Patulibacteraceae
------- Solirubrobacteraceae
------- Conexibacteraceae
------- Parviterribacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Foesel et al. 2016]
---- Demequinaceae
---- Dermabacteraceae
---- Dermatophilaceae
---- Bogoriellaceae [phylogenetic position after Stackebrandt & Schumann 2000]
---- Ruaniaceae [phylogenetic position after Gu et al. 2007]
---- Rarobacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Stackebrandt & Schumann 2000]
---- Sporichthyaceae [phylogenetic position after Tamura et al. 1999]
---- Cryptosporangiaceae
---- Jiangellaceae
---- Motilibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Lee 2013b]
---- Frankiaceae
---- Glycomycetaceae
---- Micromonosporaceae
---- Geodermatophilaceae
---- Nakamurellaceae
---- PSEUDONOCARDIALES
----- Pseudonocardiaceae
----- Mzabimycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Saker et al. 2014]
----- Actinopolysporaceae
---- CORYNEBACTERIALES
----- Segniliparaceae
----- Mycobacteriaceae
----- Nocardiaceae
----- Tsukamurellaceae
----- Gordoniaceae
----- Corynebacteriaceae
----- Dietziaceae
---- STREPTOSPORANGIALES
----- Acidothermaceae
----- Nocardiopsaceae
----- Streptosporangiaceae
----- Thermomonosporaceae
---- Streptomycetaceae
---- CATENULISPOREAE
----- Catenulisporaceae
----- Actinospicaceae [phylogenetic position after Cavaletti et al. 2006]
---- PROPIONIBACTERIALES
----- Propionibacteriaceae
----- Nocardioidaceae
---- Kineosporiaceae
---- Dermacoccaceae [phylogenetic position after Stackebrandt & Schumann 2000]
---- Intrasporangiaceae
---- Microbacteriaceae
---- Micrococcaceae
---- Brevibacteriaceae
---- Actinomycetaceae
---- Bifidobacteriaceae
---- Beutenbergiaceae
---- Cellulomonadaceae
---- Promicromonosporaceae
---- Jonesiaceae
---- Sanguibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Stackebrandt & Schumann 2000]
-- HYDROBACTERIA [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
--- Elusimicrobiaceae
--- ARMANTIMONADETES
---- Armatimonadaceae
---- Chthonomonadaceae
--- SPIROCHAETES [phylogeny after Ludwig et al. 2009a; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
---- Leptospiraceae
---- Brevinemataceae
---- Brachyspiraceae
---- Spirochaetaceae
--- PLANCTOBACTERIA
---- PLANCTOMYCETES [phylogeny after Fukunaga et al. 2009 and Ludwig et al. 2009a]
----- PHYCISPHAERAE
------ Phycisphaeraceae
------ Tepidisphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Kovaleva et al. 2015]
----- PLANCTOMYCETALES
------ Brocadiaceae
------ Gemmataceae [phylogenetic position after Kulichevskaya et al. 2016]
------ Isosphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Kulichevskaya et al. 2015]
------ Planctomycetaceae
---- CHLAMYDIAE [phylogeny after Karlsen et al. 2008 and Ludwig et al. 2009a; phylogenetic position after Lang et al. 2013]
----- Chlamydiaceae
----- Parachlamydiaceae
----- Criblamydiaceae [phylogenetic position after Thomas et al. 2006]
----- Waddliaceae
----- Clavochlamydiaceae
----- Piscichlamydiaceae
----- Parilichlamydiaceae [phylogenetic position after Stride et al. 2013]
----- Rhabdochlamydiaceae [phylogenetic position after Thomas et al. 2006]
----- Simkaniaceae
---- LENTISPHAERAE [phylogeny after Qui et al. 2013; phylogenetic position after Lang et al. 2013]
----- Oligosphaeraceae
----- LENTISPHAERIA
------ Lentisphaeraceae
------ Victivallaceae
---- VERRUCOMICROBIA [phylogeny after Yoon et al. 2011]
----- OPITUTAE
------ Opitutaceae
------ Puniceicoccaceae
----- SPARTOBACTERIA
------ Xiphinematobacteriaceae
------ Chthoniobacteraceae
----- VERRUCOMICROBIA
------ Verrucomicrobiaceae
------ Rubritaleaceae
------ Akkermansiaceae
--- SPHINGOBACTERIA
---- Fibrobacteraceae
---- Longimicrobiaceae [phylogenetic position after Pascual et al. 2016]
---- Gemmatimonadaceae
---- CHLOROBI [phylogenetic position after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009a and Lang et al. 2013]
----- Chlorobiaceae
----- Ignavibacteriaceae
---- BACTEROIDETES [phylogeny after Gupta & Lorenzini 2007 and Ludwig et al. 2009a; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
----- BALNEOLALES [phylogenetic position after Amoozegar et al. 2016, Munoz et al. 2016 and Xia et al. 2016]
------ Balneolaceae
------ Soortiaceae
----- RHODOTHERMALES [phylogeny and phylogenetic position after Amoozegar et al. 2016 and Munoz et al. 2016]
------ Rubricoccaceae
------ Rhodothermaceae
------ Salinibacteraceae
----- Flammeovirgaceae
----- Sphingobacteriaceae
----- Hymenobacteraceae [phylogenetic positon after Munoz et al. 2016]
----- Persicobacteraxeae [phylogenetic positon after Munoz et al. 2016]
----- Cytophagaceae
----- Cyclobacteriaceae
----- Catalimonadaceae [phylogenetic position after Choi et al. 2013]
----- Thermonemataceae [phylogenetic positon after Munoz et al. 2016]
----- Mooreiaceae [phylogenetic position after Choi et al. 2013]
----- Saprospiraceae
----- Filobacteriaceae [Ike et al. 2015]
----- Chitinophagaceae
----- Blattabacteriaceae
----- Ichthyobacteriaceae [phylogenetic position after Takano et al. 2016]
----- Crocinitomicaceae [phylogenetic positon after Munoz et al. 2016]
----- Flavobacteriaceae
----- Cryomorphaceae
----- Lentimicrobiaceae
----- BACTEROIDALES
------ Marinilabiaceae
------ Salinivirgaceae [phylogenetic position after Hania et al. 2016]
------ Rikenellaceae
------ Odoribacteraceae [phylogenetic positon after Munoz et al. 2016]
------ Marinifilaceae [phylogenetic position after Iino et al. 2014]
------ Balneicellaceae [phylogenetic position after Fadhlaoui et al. 2016]
------ Prolixibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Du et al. 2014]
------ Porphyromonadaceae
------ Prevotellaceae
------ Bacteroidaceae
--- EPSILONPROTEOBACTERIA
---- Nautiliaceae
---- CAMPYLOBACTERALES [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
----- Hydrogenimonadaceae
----- Campylobacteraceae
----- Helicobacteraceae
--- Nitrospiraceae
--- ACIDOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Fukunaga et al. 2008 and Ludwig et al. 2009a]
---- HOLOPHAGAE
----- Holophagaceae
----- Acanthopleuribacteraceae
---- Bryobacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Dedysh et al. 2016b]
---- Acidobacteriaceae
---- BLASTOCATELLALES
----- Pyrinomonadaceae [phylogenetic position after Wüst et al. 2016]
----- Blastocatellaceae [phylogenetic position after Pascual et al. 2015]
--- DELTAPROTEOBACTERIA [phylogeny after King et al. 2005; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
---- Bradymonadaceae [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2015b]
---- Syntrophorhabdaceae [phylogenetic position after Qiu et al. 2008]
---- Desulfurellaceae [excluding Hippea after Lang et al. 2013]
---- DESULFUROMONADALES [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
----- Desulfuromonadaceae
----- Geobacteraceae
---- Thermodesulfobacteriaceae
---- DESULFOVIBRIONALES
----- Desulfomicrobiaceae
----- Desulfohalobiaceae
----- Desulfonatronaceae
----- Desulfovibrionaceae
---- MYCOCOCCALES [phylogeny after Garcia et al. 2011]
----- SORANGINEAE
------ Anaeromyxobacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Yamamoto et al. 2014]
------ Phaselicystidaceae [phylogenetic position after Garcia et al. 2009]
------ Polyangiaceae
----- CYSTOBACTERINEAE
------ Sandaracinaceae [phylogenetic position after Yamamoto et al. 2014]
------ Myxococcaceae
------ Cystobacteraceae
----- NANNOCYSTINEAE
------ Nannocystaceae
------ Haliangiaceae
------ Kofleriaceae
---- Desulfobulbaceae
---- Desulfobacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Lang et al. 2013]
---- Desulfarculaceae [phylogenetic position after Sun et al. 2010]
---- Syntrophobacteraceae
---- Syntrophaceae
---- Nitrospinaceae
---- Bdellovibrionaceae
---- Pseudobacteriovoracaceae [phylogenetic position after McCauley et al. 2015]
---- Bacteriovoracaceae
---- Halobacteriovoracaceae [phylogenetic position after Koval et al. 2015]
--- Oligoflexaceae [phylogenetic position after Nakatani et al. 2014]
--- Mariprofundaceae [phylogenetic position after Emerson et al. 2007]
--- RHODOBACTERIA [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
---- ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Williams et al. 2007; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
----- Magnetococcaceae [phylogenetic position after Silander & Ackermann 2009 and Bazylinski et al. 2013]
----- RICKETTSIALES [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
------ Pelagibacteraceae
------ Holosporaceae [phylogenetic position after Boscaro et al. 2013]
------ Rickettsiaceae
------ Anaplasmataceae
------ Midichloriaceae [phylogenetic position after Montagno et al. 2013]
----- Rhodospirillaceae
----- Kiloniellaceae [phylogenetic position after Wiese et al. 2009]
----- Acetobacteraceae
--- SPHINGOMONADALES
------ Erythrobacteraceae
------ Sphingomonadaceae
----- Rhodobacteraceae
----- Meganemaceae [phylogenetic position McIlroy et al. 2015]
----- Sneathiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Kurahashi et al. 2008]
----- Emcibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Teramoto & Nishijima 2014]
----- Kordiimonadaceae
Iodidimonadaceae [phylogenetic positiona after Iino et al. 2016]
----- Rhodothalassiaceae [phylogenetic position after Teramoto & Nishijima 2014]
----- Parvularculaceae
----- Hyphomonadaceae
----- Caulobacteraceae
----- Micropepsaceae [phylogenetic position after Harbison et al. 2016]
----- RHIZOBIALES
------ Rhodobiaceae
------ Cohaesibacteraceae
------ Hyphomicrobiaceae
------ Bradyrhizobiaceae
------ Xanthobacteraceae
------ Methylobacteriaceae
------ Chelatococcaceae [phylogenetic position after Dedysh et al. 2016a]
------ Methylocystaceae
------ Beijerinckiaceae
------ Roseiarcaceae [phylogenetic position after Kulichevskaya et al. 2014]
------ Aurantimonadaceae
------ Rhizobiaceae
------ Phyllobacteriaceae
------ Bartonellaceae
------ Brucellaceae
---- CHROMATIBACTERIA
----- Acidithiobacillaceae [phylogenetic position after Williams & Kelly 2013]
----- BETAPROTEOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Saito et al. 2008 and Sim et al. 2010; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
------ Hydrogenophilaceae
------ Methylophilaceae
------ Sulfuricellaceae [phylogenetic position after Watanabe et al. 2015]
------ Spirillaceae
------ Rhodocyclaceae
------ Procabacteriaceae [phylogenetic position after Heinz et al. 2007]
------ NEISSERIALES
------- Neisseriaceae
------- Chromobacteriaceae [phylogenetic position after Adeolu & Gupta 2013]
------ Gallionellaceae
------ Ferritrophicaceae [phylogenetic position after Weiss et al. 2007]
------ Nitrosomonadaceae
------ BURKHOLDERIALES [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
------- Burkholderiaceae
------- Oxalobacteraceae
------- Alcaligenaceae
------- Sutterellaceae [phylogenetic position after Williams et al. 2012]
------- Comamonadaceae
----- GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Ivanova et al. 2004 and Williams et al. 2010; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
------ Wenzhouxiangellaceae
------ Thioalkalispiraceae [phylogenetic position after Sorokin et al. 2002]
------ Woeseiaceae [phylogenetic position after Du et al. 2015]
------ Granulosicoccaceae [phylogenetic position after Lee et al. 2007]
------ Halothiobacillaceae [Mori & Suzuki 2008]
------ Methylothermaceae [phylogenetic position after Hirayama 2014]
------ Thiotrichaceae
------ Methylococcaceae
------ Immundisolibacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Corteselli et al. 2016]
------ Acidiferrobacteraceae [phylogenetic position after Kojima et al. 2015]
------ Aquichromatiaceae [phylogenetic position after Yang et al. 2017]
------ Chromatiaceae
------ Ectothiorhodospiraceae
------ Xanthomonadaceae [excluding Wohlfahrtiimonas and Ignatzschineria after Naushad et al. 2015]
------ Piscirickettsiaceae
------ Francisellaceae
------ Cardiobacteriaceae
------ LEGIONELLALES [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009c]
------- Coxiellaceae
------- Legionellaceae
------ NEVSKIALES [phylogeny after Naushad et al. 2015]
------- Sinobacteraceae [=Solimonadaceae]
------- Salinisphaeraceae
------- Algiphilaceae
------ Litoricolaceae [phylogenetic position after Kim et al. 2007]
------ Oleiphilaceae
------ Saccharospirillaceae
------ Kangiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2015a]
------ Alcanivoracaceae
------ Moraxellaceae
------ Oceanospirillaceae
------ Ventosimonadaceae
------ Hahellaceae
------ Pseudomonadaceae
------ Halomonadaceae
------ CELLVIBRIONALES [phylogeny after Sperling et al. 2015]
------- Spongiibacteraceae
------- Halieaceae
------- Cellvibrionaceae
------- Microbulbiferaceae
------- Porticoccaceae
------ Ferrimonadaceae
------ Alteromonadaceae
------ Colwelliaceae
------ Idiomarinaceae
------ Pseudoalteromonadaceae
------ Shewanellaceae
------ Psychromonadaceae
------ Moritellaceae
------ AEROMONADALES
------- Succinivibrionaceae
------- Aeromonadaceae
------ Vibrionaceae
------ Enterobacteriaceae
------ Thorselliaceae [phylogenetic position after Kämpfer et al. 2015]
------ Pasteurellaceae
------ Orbaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Kwong & Moran 2013]
- NEOMURA
-- THAUMARCHAEOTA
--- Nitrososphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Tourna et al. 2011]
--- Cenarchaeaceae
--- Nitrosopumilaceae
-- CRENARCHAEOTA [phylogeny after Brochier-Armanet et al. 2005]
--- Pyrodictiaceae
--- THERMOPROTEALES
---- Thermofilaceae
---- Thermoproteaceae
--- Sulfolobaceae
--- ACIDILOBALES
---- Caldisphaeraceae
---- Acidilobaceae
--- Fervidicoccaceae
--- Desulfurococcaceae
-- EURYARCHAEOTA [phylogeny after Petitgean et al. 2015 and Borrel et al. 2013; age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009b]
--- Thermococcaceae
--- Methanopyraceae
--- METHANOCOCCI [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009b]
---- Methanococcaceae
---- Methanocaldococcaceae
--- METHANOBACTERIA
---- Methanobacteriaceae
---- Methanothermaceae
--- Methanomassiliicoccaceae
--- THERMOPLASMATA [age constrain after Battistuzzi & Hedges 2009b]
---- Thermoplasmataceae
---- Cuniculiplasmataceae [phylogenetic position after Golyshina et al. 2015]
---- Ferroplasmaceae
---- Picrophilaceae
--- Archaeoglobaceae
--- Methanocellaceae
--- METHANOSARCINALES
---- Methermicoccaceae
---- Methanosaetaceae
---- Methanoperedenaceae [phylogenetic position after Haroon et al. 2013]
---- Methanosarcinaceae
--- METHANOMICROBIALES
---- Methanocorpusculaceae
---- Methanocalculaceae [phylogenetic position after Zhilina et al. 2013]
---- Methanomicrobiaceae
---- Methanoregulaceae [phylogenetic position after Sakai et al. 2012]
---- Methanospirillaceae
--- HALOBACTERIA [phylogeny after Gupta et al. 2016]
---- Halobacteriaceae
---- HALOFERACALES
----- Halorubraceae
----- Haloferacaceae
---- Natrialbaceae
---- Halococcaceae
---- Haloarculaceae
-- EUKARYOTA [higher level phylogeny after Derelle et al. 2015, Goloboff et al. 2009, Burki & Pawlowski 2006, Burki et al. 2007, Burki et al. 2008 and Burki et al. 2009, Roberts & Simpson 2009, Zhao et al. 2012, Zhao et al. 2013 and Yoon et al. 2008]
--- BIKONTA
---- EXCAVATA [higher level phylogeny after Hampl et al. 2009]
----- METAMONADA [taxonomy after Cavalier-Smith 2013 with exceptions as specified below]
------ PREAXOSTYLA
------- Trimastigidae
------- OXYMONADIDA [phylogeny after Heiss & Keeling 2006]
-------- Saccinobaculidae
-------- Pyrsonymphidae
-------- Oxymonadidae
-------- Polymastigidae
-------- Streblomastigidae
------ TRICHOZOA
------- FORNICATA [phylogeny after Takishita et al. 2012]
-------- Carpediemonadidae
-------- Chilomastigidae
-------- Kipferliidae
-------- Dysnectidae
-------- EOPHARYNGIA
--------- Caviomonadidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith 2013]
--------- Retortamonadidae
--------- DIPLOMONADIDA
---------- GIARDIINA
----------- Giardiidae
----------- Octomitidae [phylogenetic position after Keeling & Brugerolle 2006]
---------- DISTOMATINA
----------- Spironucleidae
----------- Enteromonadidae
----------- Hexamitidae
------- PARABASALIA [phylogeny after Noda et al. 2012; taxonomy after Cepicka et al. 2010 to avoid paraphylies in the Cavalier-Smith 2013 classification]
-------- Trichomonadidae
-------- Honigbergiellidae
-------- Tricercomitidae
-------- Hexamastigidae
-------- TRICHONYMPHEA [phylogeny after Carpenter 2010]
-------- Staurojoeninidae
-------- Trichonymphidae
-------- Hoplonymphidae
-------- Spirotrichosomidae
-------- Teranymphidae [=Eucomonymphidae]
-------- Hypotrichomonadidae [=Trichomitidae]
-------- Holomastigotoididae [=Holomastigotidae, Spirotrichonymphidae, Microjoeniidae]
-------- Lophomonadidae [=Devescovinidae, Calonymphidae, Joeniidae, Gingantomonadidae, Kofoidiidae, Deltotrichonymphidae, Rhizonymphidae]
-------- Simplicimonadidae
-------- Dientamoebidae
-------- Monocercomonadidae
-------- Tritrichomonadidae
----- DISCOBA
------ JAKOBEA [phylogeny after Pánek et al. 2015]
------- ANDALUCINA
-------- Andaluciidae
-------- Stygiellidae [recognized after Pánek et al. 2015]
------- HISTIONINA
-------- Jakobidae
-------- Histionidae
------ Tsukubamonadidae [phylogenetic position after Kamikawa et al. 2014]
------ DISCICRISTATA
------- PERCOLOZOA [phylogeny after Cavalier-Smith & Nikolaev 2008]
-------- Pharyngomonadidae
-------- TETRAMITIA
--------- Vahlkampfiidae
--------- Creneidae [phylogenetic position after Pánek et al. 2014]
--------- Psalteriomonadidae
--------- Tulamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Park et al. 2009]
--------- ACRASIDA
---------- Guttulinopsidae
---------- Acrasidae
--------- Gruberellidae
--------- Lyromonadidae
--------- PERCOLATEA
---------- Stephanopogonidae
---------- Percolomonadidae
------- EUGLENOZOA [phylogeny and classification after Cavalier-Smith 2016]
-------- DIPLONEMIDA
--------- Hemistasiidae
--------- Diplonemidae
-------- POSTGAARDEA
--------- Bihospitidae
--------- POSTGAARDIDA
---------- Calkinsiidae
---------- Postgaardidae
-------- KINETOPLASTIDA [phylogeny after Moreira et al. 2004, Deschamps et al. 2011 and Stoeck et al. 2015]
--------- Ichthyobodonidae
--------- METAKINETOPLASTIDA
---------- Rhynchomonadidae
---------- Neobodonidae
---------- PARADOBONIDINA
----------- Cryptobiidae
----------- Parabodonidae
---------- Bodonidae
---------- Trypanosomatidae
-------- EUGLENOIDA
--------- Ploetiidae
--------- Entosiphonidae
--------- STAVOMONADEA
---------- Serpenomonadidae
---------- Keelungiidae
---------- PETALOMONADIDA
----------- Sphenomonadidae
----------- Scytomonadidae
--------- SPIROCUTA
---------- Peranemidae
---------- ANISONEMIA
----------- Anisonemidae
----------- NATOMONADIDA
------------ Neometanemidae
------------ RHABDOMONADINA
------------- Distigmidae
------------- Astasiidae
---------- Teloproctidae
---------- EUGLENOPHYCEAE
----------- Rapazidae
----------- EUGLENOPHYCIDAE
------------ Eutreptidae
------------ EUGLENIDA
------------- Phacidae
------------- Euglenamorphidae
------------- Euglenidae
---- DIAPHORETICKES
----- HAROSA [higher level phylogeny after Krabberød et al. 2017]
------ HETEROKONTOPHYTA
------ RHIZARIA
------- CERCOZOA
------- RETARIA [age constrain of Foraminifera after Groussin et al. 2011]
------ ALVEOLATA [higher level phylogeny after Fast et al. 2002]
------- CILIOPHORA
------- Colponemidae
------- Acavomonidae [phylogenetic position after Tikhonenkov et al. 2014]
------- MYZOZOA
-------- Chilovoridae [tentative phylogenetic positon after Cavalier-Smith & Chao 2004]
-------- Algovoridae [tentative phylogenetic positon after Cavalier-Smith & Chao 2004]
-------- DINOZOA
-------- Alphamonadidae [phylogenetic position after Gile & Slamovits 2014]
-------- Colpodellidae [phylogenetic position after Gile & Slamovits 2014]
-------- Chromeraceae [phylogenetic position after Woo et al. 2015]
-------- Vitrellaceae [phylogenetic position after Woo et al. 2015]
-------- APICOMPLEXA
----- Microheliellidae [phylogenetic position after Yabuki e tal. 2012]
----- Telonemidae
----- Picomonadidae [phylogenetic position after Not et al. 2007]
----- CRYPTISTA
------ Palpitomonadidae [phylogenetic position after Yabuki et al. 2014]
------ CRYPTOPHYTA [taxonomy after Guiry & Guiry 2017]
------- Katablepharidaceae [phylogenetic position after Okamoto & Inouye 2005]
------- Goniomonadaceae
------- CRYPTOPHYCEAE [phylogeny after Hoef-Emden et al. 2002]
-------- Cyathomonadaceae
-------- Chroomonadaceae [including Hemiselmidaceae after Hoef-Emdem et al. 2002]
-------- Geminigeraceae
-------- Pyrenomonadaceae
-------- Cryptomonadaceae [including Campylomonadaceae after Hoef-Emdem et al. 2002]
----- HAPTISTA
------ CENTROHELIOZOA [higher level phyloeny after Cavalier-Smith & Chao 2012 and Yabuki et al. 2012]
------- ACANTHOCYSTIDA
-------- Marophryidae
-------- CHALAROTHORACINA
--------- Acanthocystidae
--------- Raphidiophryidae
------- PTEROCYSTIDA
-------- Oxnerellidae
-------- Choanocystidae
-------- Heterophryidae
-------- Pterocystidae
------ HAPTOPHYTA [phylogeny after Edvardsen & Medlin 2007, Fujiwara et al. 2001, Liu 2009 and Saenz et al. 2004; taxonomy after Guiry & Guiry 2017]
------- Pavlovaceae
------- PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE
--------- Phaeocystaceae
--------- Prymnesiaceae
-------- COCCOLITHOPHORIDA [phylogenetic position of unsampled families in molecular studies after Young et al. 2005; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Young et al. 2004]
---------- Biscutaceae
---------- Watznaueriaceae
---------- Arkhangelskiellaceae
---------- Parhabdolithidae
---------- Chrysoculteraceae [phylogenetic position after Takano et al. 2006]
---------- Umbellosphaeraceae
---------- Braarudosphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Takano et al. 2006]
--------- Ceratolithaceae
---------- Alisphaeraceae
---------- Papposphaeraceae
---------- ZYGODISCALES
----------- Pontosphaeraceae
----------- Helicosphaeraceae
---------- ISOCHRYSIDALES
----------- Prinsiaceae
----------- Isochrysidaceae
----------- Noelaerhabdaceae
---------- SYRACOSPHAERALES
----------- Calciosoleniaceae
----------- Syracosphaeraceae
----------- Rhabdosphaeraceae
---------- COCCOLITHALES
----------- Calyptrosphaeraceae
----------- Calcidiscaceae
----------- Coccolithaceae
----------- Reticulosphaeraceae
----------- Hymenomonadaceae
----------- Pleurochrysidaceae
----- ARCHAEPLASTIDA [higher level phylogeny and support for monophyly after Chan et al. 2011; age constrain after Teyssedre 2006]
------ Glaucocystidaceae
------ RHODOPHYTA
------ VIRIDIPLANTAE [age constrain after Teyssedre 2006]
------- CHLOROPHYTA [higher level phylogeny after Pröschold & Leliaert 2007]
-------- Palmophyllaceae
-------- Prasinococcaceae
-------- Nephroselmidaceae
-------- Pycnococcaceae
-------- PYRAMIMONADALES
--------- Polyblepharidaceae
--------- Pterospermataceae [including Pterosphaeridiaceae]
--------- Pyramimonadaceae
-------- MAMIELLOPHYCEAE [phylogeny after Marin & Melkonian 2010]
--------- Dolichomastigaceae
--------- Crustomastigaceae
--------- Monomastigaceae
--------- MAMIELLALES
---------- Bathycoccaceae
---------- Mamiellaceae
-------- TETRAPHYTINA
--------- PEDINOPHYCEAE [phylogeny and phylogenetic position after Marin 2012]
---------- Marsupiomonadaceae
---------- Pedinomonadaceae
---------- Scourfieldiaceae
--------- CHLORODENDROPHYCEAE
---------- Chlorodendraceae
---------- Halosphaeraceae
--------- Leptosiraceae
--------- TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE
---------- Chlorellaceae [excluding "Chlorella mirabilis" and "Chlorella saccharophila" after Neustupa et al. 2011; including Micractiniaceae]
---------- Oocystaceae [including Eremosphaeraceae]
---------- Radiofilaceae
---------- Koliellaceae
---------- Microthamniaceae
---------- Trebouxiaceae
---------- Coccomyxaceae
---------- Botryococcaceae
---------- Prasiolaceae
--------- ULVOPHYCEAE
---------- Oltmannsiellopsidaceae
---------- Scotinosphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Škaloud et al. 2013]
---------- Chlorocystidaceae
---------- ULVALES [phylogeny after Lindstrom et al. 2006, O'Kelly et al. 2004ab, Hayden & Waaland 2002 and Carlile et al. 2011]
----------- Kornmanniaceae
----------- Ctenocladaceae
----------- Bolbocoleonaceae
----------- Phaeophilaceae
----------- Cloniophoraceae
----------- Ulvaceae
----------- Ulvellaceae
---------- ULOTRICHALES [phylogeny after O'Kelly et al. 2004b and Friedl & O'Kelly 2002]
----------- Acrosiphonaceae
----------- Gayraliaceae
----------- Kraftionemaceae
----------- Ulotrichaceae
----------- Gomontiaceae
----------- Gloeotilaceae
----------- Monostromataceae
----------- Collinsiellaceae
---------- Trentepohliaceae
---------- CLADOPHORALES [phylogeny after Boedeker et al. 2012 and Leliaert et al. 2007]
----------- Chaetosiphonaceae [phylogenetic position after Mandoli et al. 2003]
----------- Okellyaceae
----------- Pithophoraceae
----------- Pseudocladophoraceae
----------- Cladophoraceae [including Anadyomenaceae]
----------- Boodleaceae
----------- Siphonocladaceae
----------- Valoniaceae
---------- DASYCLADALES
----------- Dasycladaceae
----------- Polyphysaceae
---------- BRYOPSIDALES [phylogeny after Verbruggen et al. 2009 and Lam & Zechman 2006]
----------- Ostreobiaceae
----------- BRYOPSIDINEAE
------------ Derbesiaceae
------------ Bryopsidaceae
------------ Codiaceae
----------- Dichotomosiphonaceae
----------- HALIMEDINEAE
------------ Rhipiliaceae
------------ Caulerpaceae
------------ Halimedaceae
------------ Udoteaceae
--------- CHLOROPHYCEAE
---------- Oedogoniaceae
---------- Chaetopeltidaceae
---------- CHAETOPHORALES [phylogeny after Buchheim et al. 2001]
----------- Aphanochaetaceae
----------- Chaetophoraceae
----------- Schizomeridaceae
---------- SPHAEROPLEALES [phylogeny after Buchheim et al. 2005, Buchheim et al. 2001, Lewis & Lewis 2005, Watanabe et al. 2006 and Wolf et al. 2002]
----------- Mychonastaceae
----------- Selenastraceae
----------- Pseudomuriellaceae
----------- Dictyococcaceae
----------- Chromochloridaceae
----------- Schroederiaceae
----------- Dictyochloridaceae
----------- Sphaeropleaceae
----------- Rotundellaceae
----------- Scenedesmaceae
----------- Hydrodictyaceae
----------- Neochloridaceae
----------- Bracteamorphaceae
----------- Tumidellaceae
----------- Bracteacoccaceae
----------- Schizochlamydaceae
----------- Radiococcaceae [phylogentic position after Pazoutova 2008; Sphaerocystidaceae]
---------- CHLAMYDOMONADALES [phylogeny after Nakada et al. 2008ab, Nakada & Nozaki 2009, Nozaki et al. 2003 and Pröschold et al. 2001; age constrains after Herron et al. 2009]
----------- Golenkiniaceae
----------- Carteriaceae
----------- Dunaliellaceae
----------- Tetracystaceae
----------- Tetrasporaceae
----------- Hormotilaceae
----------- Chlamydomonadaceae
----------- Chlorococcaceae
----------- Characiaceae
----------- Palmellopsidaceae
----------- Chlorosarcinaceae
----------- Actinochloridaceae
----------- Phacotaceae
----------- Asteromonadaceae
----------- Haematococcaceae
----------- Protosiphonaceae
----------- Chlorochytriaceae [phylogenetic position after Škaloud et al. 2013]
----------- Endosphaeraceae
----------- Hypnomonadaceae
----------- Rhopalosolenaceae
----------- Sphaerodictyaceae
----------- Microsporaceae [excluding "Microspora" stagnorum; phylogenetic position after Buchheim & Buchheim 2001]
----------- Chlorangiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Moreland et al. 2000]
----------- Gloeodendraceae [phylogenetic position after Moreland et al. 2000]
----------- Palmellaceae [phylogenetic position after Moreland et al. 2000]
----------- Dangeardinellaceae
----------- Pleurastraceae
----------- Spondylomoraceae [phylogenetic position after Nakada et al. 2010]
----------- CHARACIOSIPHONIA
------------ Characiosiphonaceae
------------ Characiochloridaceae
----------- TREUBARINIA
------------ Treubariaceae
------------ Cylindrocapsaceae
------------ Elakatotrichaceae [phylogenetic position after Buchheim et al. 2001]
----------- Tetrabaenaceae
----------- Goniaceae
----------- Volvocaceae
------- STREPTOPHYTA [higher level phylogeny after Wickett et al. 2014]
-------- Mesostigmataceae
-------- Chlorokybaceae
-------- Klebsormidiaceae
-------- Characeae
-------- Chaetosphaeridiaceae
-------- Coleochaetaceae
-------- ZYGNEMATOPHYCEAE [phylogeny after Hall et al. 2009]
--------- Spirogyraceae
--------- Zygnemataceae [including Mesotaeniaceae]
--------- DESMIDIALES
---------- Closteriaceae
---------- Gonatozygaceae
---------- Desmidiaceae
---------- Peniaceae
-------- EMBRYOPHYTA [higher level phylogeny after Wickett et al. 2014; age constrain after Hedges et al. 2004]
--------- ANTHOCEROPHYTA
---------- Leiosporocerotaceae
---------- ANTHOCEROTOPSIDA
----------- Anthocerotaceae
----------- Notothyladaceae
----------- Phymatocerotaceae
----------- Dendrocerotaceae
--------- MARCHANTIOPHYTA [phylogeny after Forrest et al. 2006; taxonomy after Crandall-Stotler et al. 2009; age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
---------- HAPLOMITRIOPSIDA [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
----------- Haplomitriaceae
----------- Treubiaceae
---------- MARCHANTIOPSIDA [phylogeny after Villareal-A. et al. 2016; age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
----------- Blasiaceae
----------- Neohodgsoniaceae
----------- SPHAEROCARPALES
------------ Riellaceae
------------ Monocarpaceae
------------ Sphaerocarpaceae
----------- Lunulariaceae
----------- MARCHANTIALES
------------ Marchantiaceae
------------ Dumortieraceae
------------ Aytoniaceae
------------ Cleveaceae
------------ Monocleaceae
------------ Conocephalaceae
------------ Monosoleniaceae
------------ Oxymitraceae
------------ Ricciaceae
------------ Targioniaceae
------------ Wiesnerellaceae
------------ Cyathodiaceae
------------ Corsiniaceae [including Exormothecaceae after Villareal et al. 2016]
---------- JUNGERMANNIOPSIDA [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
----------- PELLIIDAE
------------ Pelliaceae
------------ Calyculariaceae
------------ Makinoaceae
------------ FOSSOMBRONIINEAE
------------- Petalophyllaceae
------------- Allisoniaceae
------------- Fossombroniaceae
------------ PALLAVICINIALES
------------- Phyllothalliaceae
------------- PALLAVICINIINEAE [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
-------------- Moerckiaceae
-------------- Hymenophytaceae
-------------- Pallaviciniaceae
----------- METZGERIIDAE [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
------------ Pleuroziaceae
------------ METZGERIALES [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
------------- Metzgeriaceae
------------- Aneuraceae
----------- JUNGERMANNIIDAE [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
------------ PORELLALES [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
------------- PORELLINEAE
-------------- Porellaceae
-------------- Goebeliellaceae
-------------- Lepidolaenaceae [including Jubulopsidaceae]
------------- Radulaceae
------------- JUBULINEAE [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
-------------- Frullaniaceae
-------------- Jubulaceae
-------------- Lejeuneaceae [including Bryopteridaceae]
------------ Herzogianthaceae [phylogenetic position after Hendry et al. 2007]
------------ PTILIDIALES
------------- Neotrichocoleaceae
------------- Ptilidiaceae
------------ JUNGERMANNIALES [age constrain after Wilkström et al. 2009]
------------- Schistochilaceae [including Perssoniellaceae after He & Glenny 2010]
------------- Trichotemnomataceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Stotler & Crandall-Stotler 2011]
------------- Myliaceae
------------- Pseudolepicoleaceae
------------- Chonecoleaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- Grolleaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- Trichocoleaceae
------------- Plagiochilaceae
------------- Blepharidophyllaceae [phylogenetic position after De Roo et al. 2007]
------------- Lophocoleaceae
------------- Herbertaceae [including Mastigophoraceae]
------------- Lepicoleaceae
------------- Brevianthaceae [phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- Lepidoziaceae
------------- Cephaloziaceae
------------- Gymnomitriaceae
------------- Antheliaceae
------------- Jungermanniaceae
------------- Solenostomataceae
------------- Jackiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- Acrobolbaceae
------------- Balantiopsidaceae
------------- Adelanthaceae
------------- Jamesoniellaceae [phylogenetic positiona after Feldberg et al. 2010]
------------- Gyrothyraceae
------------- Geocalycaceae
------------- Arnelliaceae [phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- Calypogeiaceae [including Mizutaniaceae after Masuzaki et al. 2010]
------------- Cephaloziellaceae [including Phycolepidaceae after Gradstein et al. 2014]
------------- Scapaniaceae
------------- Delavayellaceae
--------- BRYOPHYTA [higher level phylogeny after Cox et al. 2004, Wahrmund et al. 2010 and Chang & Graham 2011; age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
---------- Takakiaceae
---------- SPHAGNOPSIDA [phylogeny after Shaw et al. 2010]
----------- Ambuchananiaceae
----------- Flatbergiaceae
----------- Sphagnaceae
---------- Andreaeobryaceae
---------- Andreaeaceae
---------- Oedipodiaceae
---------- Polytrichaceae
---------- Tetraphidaceae
---------- BRYOPSIDA
----------- Buxbaumiaceae
----------- Diphysciaceae
----------- Gigaspermaceae
----------- FUNARIIDAE [age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
------------ Encalyptaceae
------------ Disceliaceae
------------ Funariaceae
----------- Timmiaceae
----------- DICRANIDAE [phylogeny afterFedosov et al. 2016]
------------ Catoscopiaceae
------------ Timmiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Inoue & Tsubota 2014]
------------ Distichiaceae
------------ Flexitrichaceae
------------ SCOULERIALES
------------- Hymenolomataceae
------------- Scouleriaceae
------------- Drummondiaceae
------------ Bryoxiphiaceae
------------ Chrysoblastellaceae
------------ Pseudoditrichaceae
------------ GRIMMIALES
------------- Seligeriaceae
------------- Saelaniaceae
------------- Ptychomitriaceae
------------- Grimmiaceae
------------ Micromitriaceae
------------ Eustichiaceae
------------ Leucobryaceae
------------ Archidiaceae
------------ Amphidiaceae
------------ Ditrichaceae
------------ Ceratodontaceae
------------ Bruchiaceae
------------ Erpodiaceae
------------ Wilsoniellaceae
------------ Calymperaceae
------------ Fissidentaceae
------------ Viridivellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Gofinet et al. 2009]
------------ Dicranaceae
------------ Dicranellaceae
------------ Aongstroemiaceae
------------ Bryowijkiaceae [phylogenetic position after Cox et al. 2010]
------------ Mitteniaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Gofinet et al. 2009]
------------ Pleurophascaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Goffinet & Buck 2004]
------------ Pottiaceae [including Cinclodotaceae and Splachnobryaceae after Werner et al. 2004]
------------ Hypodontiaceae
------------ Serpotortellaceae
------------ Schistostegaceae
------------ Rhachitheciaceae [phylogenetic position after Cox et al. 2010]
------------ Dicnemonaceae [phylogenetic position after Cox et al. 2010]
------------ Rhabdoweisiaceae
----------- BRYIDAE [age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
------------ Bartramiaceae
------------ HEDWIGIALES
------------- Hedwigiaceae
------------- Rhacocarpaceae
------------- Orthotrichaceae
------------- Helicophyllaceae [phylogenetic position after Fiz-Palacios et al. 2011]
------------- SPLACHNALES [age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
-------------- Meesiaceae
-------------- Splachnaceae
------------- BRYALES
-------------- Mniaceae
-------------- Phyllodrepaniaceae
-------------- Pulchrinodaceae
-------------- Leptostomataceae
-------------- Bryaceae
------------- Orthodontiaceae
------------- Aulacomniaceae
------------- Rhizogoniaceae
------------- HYPNANAE [phylogeny after Huttunen et al. 2012]
-------------- HYPNODENDRALES [age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
--------------- Braithwaiteaceae
--------------- Hypnodendraceae
--------------- Pterobryellaceae
--------------- Racopilaceae
-------------- Orthorrhynchiaceae
-------------- Ptychomniaceae
-------------- Hypopterygiaceae
-------------- HOOKERIALES [age constrain after Newton et al. 2009]
--------------- Saulomataceae
--------------- Schimperobryaceae
--------------- Daltoniaceae
--------------- Hookeriaceae
--------------- Pilotrichaceae
--------------- Leucomiaceae
-------------- HYPNALES
--------------- Acrocladiaceae
--------------- Amblystegiaceae
--------------- Anomodontaceae
--------------- Antitrichiaceae
--------------- Brachytheciaceae
--------------- Calliergonaceae
--------------- Catagoniaceae
--------------- Climaciaceae
--------------- Cryphaeaceae
--------------- Echinodiaceae
--------------- Entodontaceae
--------------- Fabroniaceae
--------------- Fontinalaceae
--------------- Heterocladiaceae
--------------- Hylocomiaceae
--------------- Hypnaceae
--------------- Lembophyllaceae
--------------- Leptodontaceae
--------------- Lepyrodontaceae
--------------- Leskeaceae
--------------- Leucodontaceae
--------------- Meteoriaceae
--------------- Microtheciellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Goffinet et al. 2009]
--------------- Miyabeaceae
--------------- Myriniaceae
--------------- Myuriaceae
--------------- Neckeraceae
--------------- Phyllogoniaceae
--------------- Plagiotheciaceae
--------------- Prionodontaceae
--------------- Pseudoleskeaceae
--------------- Pterigynandraceae
--------------- Pterobryaceae
--------------- Pylaisiaceae
--------------- Pylaisiadelphaceae
--------------- Regmatodontaceae
--------------- Sematophyllaceae
--------------- Sorapillaceae
--------------- Stereophyllaceae
--------------- Symphyodontaceae
--------------- Theliaceae
--------------- Thuidiaceae [including Helodiaceae]
--------------- Rhytidiaceae
--------------- Pseudoleskeellaceae
--------------- Rhizofabroniaceae [phylogenetic position after Cox et al. 2010]
--------------- Trachylomataceae
--------------- Rutenbergiaceae
--------- POLYSPORANGIOPHYTA [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Steward & Rothwell 1993]
---------- Horneophytaceae
---------- TRACHEOPHYTA
----------- Rhyniaceae
----------- EUTRACHEOPHYTA [age constrain after Magallón & Hilu 2009]
------------ Cooksoniaceae
------------ LYCOPHYTINA [phylogeny of extant groups after PPG l 2016; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Steward & Rothwell 1993]
------------- Zosterophyllaceae
------------- Barinophytaceae
------------- Gosslingiaceae
------------- Sawdoniaceae
------------- LYCOPODIOPHYTA [phylogeny of extant families after PPG I 2016]
-------------- Archaeosigillariaceae
-------------- LYCOPODIOPSIDA
--------------- Asteroxylaceae
--------------- Drepanophycaceae
--------------- Lycopodiaceae
-------------- PROTOLEPIDODENDRALES
--------------- Protolepidodendraceae
--------------- Spenceritaceae
-------------- ISOETOPSIDA
--------------- Selaginellaceae
--------------- Pleuromeiaceae
--------------- ISOETALES
---------------- Nathorstianaceae
---------------- Chaloneriaceae
---------------- Isoetaceae
--------------- LEPIDODENDRALES [phylogeni and phylogenetic position adter Qi et al. 2003]
--------------- Sigillariaceae
--------------- Sublepidodendraceae
--------------- Diaphorodendraceae
--------------- Lepidodendraceae
------------ EUPHYLLOPHYTINA [age constrain after Magallón & Hilu 2009]
------------- MONILOPHYTA [Higher level phylogeny after Wickett et al. 2014]
-------------- CLADOXYLALES
--------------- Pseudosporochnaceae
--------------- Cladoxylaceae
-------------- ZYGOPTERIDALES
--------------- Rhacophytaceae
--------------- Zygopteridaceae
-------------- Marattiaceae
-------------- PSILOTOPSIDA
--------------- Ophioglossaceae
--------------- Psilotaceae
-------------- EQUISETOPSIDA
--------------- Pseudoborniaceae
--------------- HYENIALES
---------------- Hyeniaceae
---------------- Calamophytaceae
--------------- Sphenophyllaceae
--------------- EQUISETALES
---------------- Archaeocalamitaceae
---------------- Calamitaceae
---------------- Equisetaceae
-------------- POLYPODIOPSIDA [phylogeny after PPG I 2016]
--------------- Tedeleaceae
--------------- Botryopteridaceae
--------------- Osmundaceae
--------------- Hymenophyllaceae
--------------- GLEICHENIALES
---------------- Gleicheniaceae
---------------- Dipteridaceae
---------------- Matoniaceae
--------------- SCHIZAEALES
---------------- Lygodiaceae
---------------- Schizaeaceae
---------------- Anemiaceae
--------------- SALVINIALES
---------------- Marsileaceae
---------------- Salviniaceae
--------------- Tempskyaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Martinez & Olivo 2015]
--------------- CYATHEALES
---------------- Thyrsopteridaceae
---------------- Loxsomataceae
---------------- Culcitaceae
---------------- Plagiogyriaceae
---------------- Cyatheaceae
---------------- Cibotiaceae
---------------- Dicksoniaceae
---------------- Metaxyaceae
--------------- POLYPODIALES
---------------- Saccolomataceae
---------------- LINDSAEINEAE
----------------- Lonchitidaceae
----------------- Cystodiaceae
----------------- Lindsaeaceae
---------------- Pteridaceae
---------------- Dennstaedtiaceae
---------------- POLYPODIINEAE
----------------- Didymochlaenaceae
----------------- Hypodematiaceae
----------------- Dryopteridaceae
----------------- Lomariopsidaceae
----------------- Nephrolepidaceae
----------------- Tectariaceae
----------------- Oleandraceae
----------------- Davalliaceae
----------------- Polypodiaceae
---------------- ASPLENIINEAE
----------------- Cystopteridaceae
----------------- Thelypteridaceae
----------------- Woodsiaceae
----------------- Athyriaceae
----------------- Onocleaceae
----------------- Blechnaceae
----------------- Rhachidosoraceae
----------------- Diplaziopsidaceae
----------------- Desmophlebiaceae
----------------- Aspleniaceae
----------------- Hemidictyaceae
------------- TRIMEROPHYTOPSIDA
-------------- Trimerophytaceae
-------------- Psilophytaceae
------------- LIGNOPHYTA [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Anderson et al. 2007 and Doyle 2008]
-------------- Archaeopteridaceae
-------------- Aneurophytaceae
-------------- NOEGGERATHIALES [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2017]
--------------- Noeggerathiaceae [=Noeggerathiaestrobaceae]
--------------- Tingiaceae [=Tingiostachyaceae]
-------------- LYGINOPTERIDALES
--------------- Moresnetiaceae
--------------- Lyginopteridaceae
-------------- MEDULLOSALES
--------------- Medullosaceae
--------------- Parispermaceae
--------------- Neurodontopteridaceae
--------------- Alethopteridaceae
-------------- SPERMATOPHYTA [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Anderson et al. 2007 and Doyle 2008; age constrain after Soltis et al. 2002]
--------------- Callistophytaceae
--------------- Emplectopteridaceae
--------------- Gigantopteridaceae
--------------- Glossopteridaceae
--------------- Caytoniaceae
--------------- Calamopityaceae
--------------- PELTASPERMALES
---------------- Umkomasiaceae [=Corystospermaceae]
---------------- Peltaspermaceae
--------------- BENNETTITALES
---------------- Cycadeoideaceae
---------------- Williamsoniaceae
--------------- GYMNOSPERMAE [phylogeny of extant families after Wickett et al. 2014]
---------------- Ginkgoaceae
---------------- CYCADALES
----------------- Cycadaceae
----------------- Zamiaceae
---------------- CORDAITALES
----------------- Rufloriaceae
----------------- Cordaitaceae
---------------- GNETALES
----------------- Ephedraceae
----------------- Welwitschiaceae
----------------- Gnetaceae 256
---------------- PINOPHYTA
----------------- Majonicaceae
----------------- Ullmanniaceae
----------------- CONIFERALES
------------------ Cheirolepidiaceae
------------------ Pinaceae
------------------ ARAUCARIALES
------------------- Araucariaceae [phylogenetic position after Lu et al. 2014]
------------------- Podocarpaceae
------------------ CUPRESSALES
------------------- Sciadopityaceae
------------------- Cupressaceae
------------------- Taxaceae
------- ANGIOSPERMAE [higher level phylogeny after Wickett et al. 2014; taxonomy after The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2016]
---------------- Amborellaceae
---------------- Archaefructaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ji et al. 2004]
---------------- NYMPHAEALES [phylogeny after Saarela et al. 2007]
----------------- Hydatellaceae
----------------- Nymphaeaceae
----------------- Cabombaceae
---------------- AUSTROBAILEYALES [phylogeny after Källersjö et al. 1998]
----------------- Austrobaileyaceae
----------------- Schisandraceae
----------------- Trimeniaceae
---------------- MESANGIOSPERMAE [age constrain after Magallón 2009]
----------------- MONOCOTYLEDONEAE [higher level phylogeny after Ruhfel et al. 2014]
------------------ Acoraceae
------------------ ALISMATALES [phylogeny after Ross et al. 2016]
------------------- Araceae
------------------- Tofieldiaceae [phylogenetic position after Hertweck et al. 2015]
------------------- Alismataceae
------------------- Hydrocharitaceae
------------------- Butomaceae
------------------- Scheuchzeriaceae
------------------- Aponogetonaceae
------------------- Juncaginaceae
------------------- Maundiaceae
------------------- Posidoniaceae
------------------- Ruppiaceae
------------------- Cymodoceaceae
------------------- Zosteraceae
------------------- Potamogetonaceae
------------------ Petrosaviaceae
------------------ DIOSCOREALES [phylogeny after Merckx et al. 2006]
------------------- Nartheciaceae
------------------- Burmanniaceae
------------------- Dioscoreaceae
------------------- Taccaceae
------------------- Thismiaceae
------------------ PANDANALES [phylogeny after Mennes et al. 2013 and Hertweck et al. 2015]
------------------- Velloziaceae
------------------- Triuridaceae
------------------- Stemonaceae
------------------- Pandanaceae
------------------- Cyclanthaceae
------------------ LILIALES [phylogeny after Givnish et al. 2016]
------------------- Corsiaceae
------------------- Campynemataceae
------------------- Melanthiaceae
------------------- Colchicaceae
------------------- Alstroemeriaceae
------------------- Rhipogonaceae
------------------- Philesiaceae
------------------- Smilacaceae
------------------- Liliaceae
------------------ ASPARAGALES [phylogeny after Fay et al. 2000]
------------------- Orchidaceae
------------------- Boryaceae
------------------- Blandfordiaceae
------------------- Lanariaceae
------------------- Asteliaceae
------------------- Hypoxidaceae
------------------- Ixioliriaceae
------------------- Tecophilaeaceae
------------------- Doryanthaceae
------------------- Iridaceae
------------------- Xeronemataceae
------------------- Asphodelaceae [=Xanthorrhoeaceae]
------------------- Amaryllidaceae
------------------- Asparagaceae
------------------ COMMELINIDAE
------------------- ARECALES
-------------------- Dasypogonaceae
-------------------- Arecaceae
------------------- COMMELINALES [phylogeny after Saarela et al. 2008]
-------------------- Commelinaceae
-------------------- Hanguanaceae
-------------------- Philydraceae
-------------------- Haemodoraceae
-------------------- Pontederiaceae
------------------- ZINGIBERALES [phylogeny after Sass et al. 2016]
-------------------- Musaceae
-------------------- Heliconiaceae
-------------------- STRELITZIINEAE
--------------------- Strelitziaceae
--------------------- Lowiaceae
-------------------- ZINGIBERINEAE
--------------------- ZINGIBERARIAE
---------------------- Costaceae
---------------------- Zingiberaceae
--------------------- CANNARIAE
---------------------- Cannaceae
---------------------- Marantaceae
------------------- POALES [phylogeny after McKain et al. 2016]
-------------------- Typhaceae
-------------------- Bromeliaceae
-------------------- Rapateaceae
-------------------- Xyridaceae
-------------------- Eriocaulaceae
-------------------- Mayacaceae
-------------------- Thurniaceae [phylogenetic position after Bouchenak-Khelladi et al. 2014]
-------------------- Cyperaceae
-------------------- Juncaceae
-------------------- Restionaceae
-------------------- Flagellariaceae
-------------------- Poaceae
-------------------- Joinvilleaceae
-------------------- Ecdeiocoleaceae
----------------- Chloranthaceae
----------------- MAGNOLIIDAE [phylogeny after Massoni et al. 2014]
------------------ CANELLALES
------------------- Winteraceae
------------------- Canellaceae
------------------ PIPERALES
------------------- Aristolochiaceae
------------------- Piperaceae
------------------- Saururaceae
------------------ MAGNOLIALES
------------------- Myristicaceae
------------------- Magnoliaceae
------------------- Himantandraceae
------------------- Eupomatiaceae
------------------- Annonaceae
------------------ LAURALES
------------------- Calycanthaceae
------------------- Monimiaceae
------------------- Hernandiaceae
------------------- Lauraceae
------------------- Siparunaceae
------------------- Gomortegaceae
------------------- Atherospermataceae
----------------- Montsechiaceae [phylogenetic position after Gomez et al. 2015]
----------------- Ceratophyllaceae
----------------- EUDICOTYLEDONEAE [higher level phylogeny after Zeng et al. 2017]
------------------ RANUNCULALES [phylogeny after Wang et al. 2009]
------------------- Eupteleaceae
------------------- Papaveraceae
------------------- Lardizabalaceae
------------------- Circaeasteraceae
------------------- Menispermaceae
------------------- Berberidaceae
------------------- Ranunculaceae
------------------ PROTEALES [phylogeny after Sun et al. 2016b]
------------------- Sabiaceae
------------------- Proteaceae
------------------- Nelumbonaceae
------------------- Platanaceae
------------------ Trochodendraceae [phylogenetic position after Moore et al. 2010]
------------------ Buxaceae
------------------ ROSINAE
------------------- GUNNERALES
-------------------- Gunneraceae
-------------------- Myrothamnaceae
------------------- PENTAPETALAE
-------------------- BERBERIDOPSIDALES
--------------------- Aextoxicaceae
--------------------- Berberidopsidaceae
-------------------- Dilleniaceae
-------------------- CARYOPHYLLALES [higher level phylogeny after Yang et al. 2015; lower level phylogeny after Brockington et al. 2009; Note: some of the poorly supported clades in the aforementioned studies are strongly supported by Soltis et al. 2011 and are thus represented here]
--------------------- POLYGONINEAE
---------------------- Frankeniaceae
---------------------- Tamaricaceae
---------------------- Plumbaginaceae
---------------------- Polygonaceae
---------------------- Droseraceae
---------------------- Nepenthaceae
---------------------- Drosophyllaceae
---------------------- Ancistrocladaceae
---------------------- Dioncophyllaceae
--------------------- Rhabdodendraceae
--------------------- Simmondsiaceae
--------------------- Physenaceae
--------------------- Asteropeiaceae
--------------------- Macarthuriaceae [phylogenetic position after Brockington et al. 2011]
--------------------- CARYOPHYLLINEAE
---------------------- Microteaceae
---------------------- Amaranthaceae
---------------------- Caryophyllaceae
---------------------- Achatocarpaceae
---------------------- Stegnospermataceae
---------------------- Limeaceae
---------------------- Lophiocarpaceae [phylogenetic position after Brockington et al. 2011]
---------------------- Kewaceae [phylogenetic position after Brockington et al. 2011]
---------------------- Barbeuiaceae [phylogenetic position after Brockington et al. 2011]
---------------------- Aizoaceae
---------------------- Phytolaccaceae
---------------------- Gisekiaceae
---------------------- Sarcobataceae
---------------------- Petiveriaceae
---------------------- Nyctaginaceae [age range after Manchester et al. 2015]
---------------------- Molluginaceae
---------------------- Montiaceae
---------------------- Halophytaceae
---------------------- Didiereaceae
---------------------- Basellaceae
---------------------- Talinaceae
---------------------- Anacampserotaceae [phylogenetic position after Brockington et al. 2011]
---------------------- Portulacaceae
---------------------- Cactaceae
--------------------- ASTERIDAE
---------------------- CORNALES (phylogeny after Xiang et al. 2011]
----------------------- Nyssaceae
----------------------- Cornaceae
----------------------- Hydrangeaceae
----------------------- Hydrostachyaceae
----------------------- Loasaceae
----------------------- Curtisiaceae
----------------------- Grubbiaceae
---------------------- ERICALES [phylogeny after Schönenberger et al. 2005]
----------------------- Balsaminaceae
----------------------- Marcgraviaceae
----------------------- Tetrameristaceae
----------------------- Lecythidaceae
----------------------- Polemoniaceae
----------------------- Fouquieriaceae
----------------------- Pentaphylacaceae
----------------------- Sapotaceae
----------------------- Ebenaceae
----------------------- Primulaceae
----------------------- Mitrastemonaceae
----------------------- Theaceae
----------------------- Symplocaceae
----------------------- Styracaceae
----------------------- Diapensiaceae
----------------------- Sarraceniaceae
----------------------- Actinidiaceae
----------------------- Roridulaceae
----------------------- Clethraceae
----------------------- Cyrillaceae
----------------------- Ericaceae
---------------------- EUASTERIDAE
----------------------- CAMPANULIDAE
------------------------ Escalloniaceae [phylogenetic position after Soltis et al. 2011]
------------------------ Paracryphiaceae [phylogenetic position after Soltis et al. 2011]
------------------------ BRUNIALES [phylogenetic position after Soltis et al. 2011]
------------------------- Bruniaceae
------------------------- Columelliaceae
------------------------ APIALES [phylogeny after Soltis et al. 2010]
------------------------- Pennantiaceae
------------------------- Torricelliaceae
------------------------- Griseliniaceae
------------------------- Pittosporaceae
------------------------- Araliaceae
------------------------- Myodocarpaceae
------------------------- Apiaceae
------------------------ DIPSACALES
------------------------- Adoxaceae
------------------------- Caprifoliaceae
------------------------ ASTERALES [phylogeny after Soltis et al. 2010]
------------------------- Pentaphragmataceae
------------------------- Rousseaceae
------------------------- Campanulaceae
------------------------- Alseuosmiaceae
------------------------- Phellinaceae
------------------------- Argophyllaceae
------------------------- Stylidiaceae
------------------------- Menyanthaceae
------------------------- Goodeniaceae
------------------------- Calyceraceae
------------------------- Asteraceae
----------------------- LAMIIDAE
------------------------ Metteniusaceae [phylogenetic position after Stull et al. 2015]
------------------------ ICACINALES [phylogenetic position after Stull et al. 2015]
------------------------- Oncothecaceae
------------------------- Icacinaceae
------------------------ GARRYALES
------------------------- Eucommiaceae
------------------------- Garryaceae
------------------------ AQUIFOLIALES [phylogeny after Soltis et al. 2010]
------------------------- Stemonuraceae
------------------------- Cardiopteridaceae
------------------------- Aquifoliaceae
------------------------- Helwingiaceae
------------------------- Phyllonomaceae
------------------------ LAMIANAE
------------------------- Vahliaceae [phylogenetic position after Stull et al. 2015]
------------------------- GENTIANALES [phylogeny after Stull et al. 2015]
-------------------------- Rubiaceae
-------------------------- Gentianaceae
-------------------------- Apocynaceae
-------------------------- Loganiaceae
-------------------------- Gelsemiaceae
------------------------- Boraginaceae
------------------------- SOLANALES [phylogeny after Stull et al. 2015]
-------------------------- Convolvulaceae
-------------------------- Solanaceae
-------------------------- Montiniaceae [phylogenetic position after Soltis et al. 2011]
-------------------------- Sphenocleaceae
-------------------------- Hydroleaceae
------------------------- LAMIALES [higher level phylogeny after Stull et al. 2015; lower level phylogeny after Soltis et al. 2011]
-------------------------- Plocospermataceae
-------------------------- Carlemanniaceae [phylogenetic position after Refulio-Rodriguez & Olmstead 2014]
-------------------------- Oleaceae
-------------------------- Tetrachondraceae
-------------------------- Peltantheraceae
-------------------------- Calceolariaceae
-------------------------- Gesneriaceae
-------------------------- Plantaginaceae
-------------------------- Scrophulariaceae
-------------------------- Stilbaceae
-------------------------- Linderniaceae [phylogenetic position after Refulio-Rodriguez & Olmstead 2014]
-------------------------- Byblidaceae
-------------------------- Pedaliaceae
-------------------------- Martyniaceae
-------------------------- Acanthaceae
-------------------------- Bignoniaceae
-------------------------- Verbenaceae
-------------------------- Lentibulariaceae
-------------------------- Schlegeliaceae [phylogenetic position after Refulio-Rodriguez & Olmstead 2014]
-------------------------- Lamiaceae
-------------------------- Mazaceae [phylogenetic position after Refulio-Rodriguez & Olmstead 2014]
-------------------------- Phrymaceae
-------------------------- Paulowniaceae
-------------------------- Orobanchaceae
-------------------- SANTALALES [phylogeny after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Erythropalaceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Strombosiaceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Coulaceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Ximeniaceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Aptandraceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Olacaceae
--------------------- Balanophoraceae
--------------------- Opiliaceae
--------------------- Santalaceae
--------------------- Mystropetalaceae [recognized after Su et al. 2015]
--------------------- Loranthaceae
--------------------- Schoepfiaceae
--------------------- Misodendraceae
-------------------- SUPERROSIDAE
--------------------- Vitaceae
--------------------- SAXIFRAGALES [phylogeny after Jian et al. 2008]
---------------------- Cynomoriaceae [phylogenetic position after Naumann et al. 2013]
---------------------- Paeoniaceae
---------------------- Altingiaceae
---------------------- Hamamelidaceae
---------------------- Cercidiphyllaceae
---------------------- Daphniphyllaceae
---------------------- Iteaceae
---------------------- Grossulariaceae
---------------------- Saxifragaceae
---------------------- Crassulaceae
---------------------- Aphanopetalaceae
---------------------- Tetracarpaeaceae
---------------------- Penthoraceae
---------------------- Haloragaceae
--------------------- ROSIDAE
---------------------- ZYGOPHYLLALES [phylogenetic position after Moore et al. 2010]
----------------------- Krameriaceae
----------------------- Zygophyllaceae
---------------------- ROSALES [phylogeny after Zhang et al. 2011]
----------------------- Rosaceae
----------------------- Rhamnaceae
----------------------- Elaeagnaceae
----------------------- Ulmaceae
----------------------- Cannabaceae
----------------------- Moraceae
----------------------- Urticaceae
---------------------- FABALES [phylogeny after Zhao et al. 2016]
----------------------- Quillajaceae
----------------------- Fabaceae
----------------------- Surianaceae [phylogenetic position after Sun et al. 2016a]
----------------------- Polygalaceae
---------------------- FAGALES [phylogeny after Li et al. 2004]
----------------------- Nothofagaceae
----------------------- Fagaceae
----------------------- Betulaceae
----------------------- Casuarinaceae
----------------------- Myricaceae
----------------------- Juglandaceae
---------------------- CUCURBITALES [phylogenetic position after Moore et al. 2010; phylogeny after Zhang et al. 2006]
----------------------- Anisophylleaceae
----------------------- Apodanthaceae [phylogenetic position after Sun et al. 2016a]
----------------------- Corynocarpaceae
----------------------- Coriariaceae
----------------------- Cucurbitaceae
----------------------- Tetramelaceae
----------------------- Datiscaceae
----------------------- Begoniaceae
---------------------- Celastraceae
---------------------- MALPIGHIALES [phylogeny after Xi et al. 2010]
----------------------- Putranjivaceae
----------------------- Caryocaraceae
----------------------- Balanopaceae
----------------------- Centroplacaceae
----------------------- Elatinaceae
----------------------- Malpighiaceae
----------------------- Euphroniaceae
----------------------- Chrysobalanaceae
----------------------- Trigoniaceae
----------------------- Dichapetalaceae
----------------------- Irvingiaceae
----------------------- Pandaceae
----------------------- Ctenolophonaceae
----------------------- Erythroxylaceae
----------------------- Rhizophoraceae
----------------------- Ochnaceae
----------------------- Bonnetiaceae
----------------------- Clusiaceae
----------------------- Calophyllaceae
----------------------- Hypericaceae
----------------------- Podostemaceae
----------------------- Peraceae
----------------------- Rafflesiaceae [phylogenetic position after Davis et al. 2007]
----------------------- Euphorbiaceae
----------------------- Phyllanthaceae
----------------------- Picrodendraceae
----------------------- Ixonanthaceae
----------------------- Linaceae
----------------------- Humiriaceae
----------------------- Achariaceae
----------------------- Goupiaceae
----------------------- Violaceae
----------------------- Salicaceae
----------------------- Passifloraceae
----------------------- Malesherbiaceae
---------------------- OXALIDALES [phylogeny after Soltis et al. 2011]
----------------------- Huaceae
----------------------- Connaraceae
----------------------- Oxalidaceae
----------------------- Cunoniaceae
----------------------- Elaeocarpaceae
----------------------- Brunelliaceae
----------------------- Cephalotaceae
---------------------- MALVIDAE
----------------------- GERANIALES [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2009]
------------------------ Geraniaceae
------------------------ Francoaceae [=Melianthaceae]
----------------------- MYRTALES [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2009; phylogeny after Berger et al. 2016]
------------------------ Combretaceae
------------------------ Onagraceae
------------------------ Lythraceae
------------------------ Vochysiaceae
------------------------ Myrtaceae
------------------------ Melastomataceae
------------------------ Crypteroniaceae
------------------------ Penaeaceae
----------------------- CROSSOSOMATALES [phylogeny after Sun et al. 2016a]
------------------------ Aphloiaceae
------------------------ Geissolomataceae
------------------------ Staphyleaceae
------------------------ Stachyuraceae
------------------------ Crossosomataceae
----------------------- Picramniaceae [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2009]
----------------------- SAPINDALES [phylogeny after Muellner-Riehl et al. 2016]
------------------------ Biebersteiniaceae
------------------------ Nitrariaceae
------------------------ Kirkiaceae
------------------------ Burseraceae
------------------------ Anacardiaceae
------------------------ Sapindaceae
------------------------ Simaroubaceae
------------------------ Meliaceae
------------------------ Rutaceae
----------------------- MALVALES [phylogeny after Le Péchon & Gigord 2014]
------------------------ Neuradaceae
------------------------ Thymelaeaceae
------------------------ Bixaceae
------------------------ Malvaceae
------------------------ Cytinaceae
------------------------ Muntingiaceae
------------------------ Cistaceae
------------------------ Sarcolaenaceae
------------------------ Dipterocarpaceae
----------------------- HUERTEALES [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2009; phylogeny after Sun et al. 2016a]
------------------------ Tapisciaceae
------------------------ Dipentodontaceae
------------------------ Petenaeaceae
------------------------ Gerrardinaceae
----------------------- BRASSICALES [phylogeny after Edger et al. 2015]
------------------------ Caricaceae
------------------------ Moringaceae
------------------------ Akaniaceae [age range after Iglesias et al. 2007]
------------------------ Tropaeolaceae
------------------------ Setchellanthaceae [phylogenetic position after Cardinal-McTeague et al. 2016]
------------------------ Limnanthaceae
------------------------ Koeberliniaceae
------------------------ Salvadoraceae [phylogenetic position after Sun et al. 2016a]
------------------------ Azimaceae [recognized after Sun et al. 2016a]
------------------------ Bataceae
------------------------ Emblingiaceae
------------------------ Tovariaceae [phylogenetic position after Cardinal-McTeague et al. 2016]
------------------------ Pentadiplandraceae
------------------------ Gyrostemonaceae
------------------------ Resedaceae
------------------------ Capparaceae
------------------------ Cleomaceae
------------------------ Brassicaceae
--- OPIMODA
---- Malawimonadidae
---- Discoceliidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith 2013]
---- Mantamonadidae [phylogenetic position after Yabuki et al. 2013]
---- Diphylleidae [=Collodyctionidae]
---- Sulcomonadidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith 2013]
---- RIGIFILIDA [phylogenetic position after Yabuki et al. 2013]
----- Micronucleariidae
----- Rigifilidae
---- PLANOMONADIDA [phylogeny after Cavalier-Smith et al. 2014; phylogenetic position after Paps et al. 2013]
----- Planomonadidae
----- Ancyromonadidae
---- UNIKONTA [higher level phylogeny after Brown et al. 2013]
----- AMOEBOZOA [higher level phylogeny after Tekle & Wood 2017, Cavalier-Smith et al. 2016]
------ Multiciliidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ Schizoplasmodiidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ Gephyramoebidae [phylogenetic position after Tekle et al. 2008]
------ Rigidomastigidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith et al. 2016]
------ Artodiscidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith et al. 2016]
------ Dictyamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Berney et al. 2015]
------ Arboramoebidae [phylogenetic position after Berney et al. 2015]
------ Stygamoebidae [circumscription after Tekle et al. 2016 for familial monophyly]
------ Corallomyxidae [phylogenetic position after Bass et al. 2009 (genus Filoreta excluded)]
------ DERMAMOEBIDA
------- Mayorellidae
------- Paramoebidae [circumscription after Kudryavtsev et al. 2011 for familial monophyly]
------ DISCOSEA
------- HIMATISMENIDA
-------- Parvamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
-------- Cochliopodiidae
------- CENTRAMOEBIDA
-------- Stereomyxidae
-------- Acanthamoebidae
-------- PELLITIDAE
--------- Goceviidae
--------- Pellitidae [phylogenetic position after Kudryavtsev et al. 2014]
------- FLABELLINIA
-------- THECAMOEBIDA
--------- Stenamoebidae
--------- Thecamoebidae
-------- GLYCOSTYLIDA
--------- Vannellidae [including "Vexillifera minutissima" after Tekle et al. 2008]
--------- Dermamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
--------- Vexilliferidae [circumscription after Kudryavtsev et al. 2011 for familial monophyly]
------ CUTOSEA [phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith et al. 2016]
------- Sapocribridae
------- Squamamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2015]
------ ARCHAMOEBAE [phylogeny after Pánek et al. 2016]
------- Entamoebidae
------- PELOBIONTIDA
-------- Pelomyxidae
-------- Tricholimacidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Cavalier-Smith et al. 2016]
-------- MASTIGAMOEBINA
--------- Rhizomastigidae
--------- Mastigamoebidae
------ TUBULINEA
------- Trichosidae
------- ECHINAMOEBIDA
-------- Echinamoebidae
-------- Vermamoebidae
------- LEPTOMYXIDA
-------- Leptomyxidae
-------- Flabellulidae
------- Nolandellidae
------- TUBULINIDA
-------- Hartmannellidae
-------- Amoebidae
------- ARCELLINIDA [phylogeny after Gomaa et al. 2012; tentative phylogenetic position of unsampled families after Meisterfeld 2002; age constrain after Farooqui et al. 2014]
-------- Centropyxidae
-------- Difflugiidae
-------- Arcellidae
-------- Heleoperidae
-------- Hyalospheniidae
-------- Lesquereusiidae
-------- Microchlamyidae
-------- Microcoryciidae
-------- Nebelidae
-------- Paraquadrulidae
-------- Plagiopyxidae
-------- Trigonopyxidae
-------- PHRYGANELLINA
--------- Phryganellidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Meisterfeld 2002]
--------- Cryptodifflugiidae
------ Angulamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Berney et al. 2015]
------ Ischnamoebidae [phylogenetic position after Berney et al. 2015]
------ Cavosteliaceae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ Acramoebidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ Soliformoviidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ Protosteliidae [phylogenetic position after Lahr et al. 2013]
------ VARIOSEA
------- Phalansteriidae
------- Filamoebidae
------- Flamellidae
------ MACROMYCETOZOA [higher level phylogeny after Fiore-Donno et al. 2010]
------- Protosporangiidae
------- Ceratiomyxidae
------- Dictyosteliidae
------- MYXOGASTRIA [phylogeny after Fiore-Donno et al. 2005; classification after Cavalier-Smith 2013]
-------- COLLUMELIDIA
--------- ECHINOSTELIALES
---------- Echinosteliaceae
---------- Clastodermataceae
--------- FUSCISPORIDIA
---------- Stemonitaceae
---------- PHYSARALES
----------- Elaeomyxaceae
----------- Didymiaceae
----------- Physaraceae
-------- LUCISPORIDIA [phylogeny and taxonomy after Fiore-Donno et al. 2013 (with the exclusion of Arcyriaceae, which is nested within Trichiaceae, and the recognition of Prototrichiaceae as an independent family to avoid poliphyly of Trichiaceae)]
--------- Cribrariaceae
--------- Listerellaceae
--------- Reticulariaceae
--------- Trichiaceae
--------- Minakatellaceae
--------- Dictydiaethaliaceae
--------- Liceaceae
--------- Dianemataceae
--------- Prototrichiaceae
----- OBAZOA
------ Breviatidae
------ Apusomonadidae
------ OPISTHOKONTA [higher level phylogeny after Hehenberger et al. 2017]
------- HOLOMYCOTA [higher level phylogeny after Karpov et al. 2014]
-------- CRISTIDISCOIDEA
--------- Fonticulidae [phylogenetic position after Brown et al. 2009]
--------- Nucleariidae
-------- OPISTHOSPORIDIA [higher level phylogeny after Karpov et al. 2012 and James et al. 2013]
--------- Rozellidae
--------- APHELIDIDA
---------- Amoebaphelidiidae
---------- Aphelidiidae
--------- MICROSPORIDIA [phylogenetic position after Vossbrinck & Debrunner-Vossbrinck 2005]
---------- Metchnikovellidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Sprague et al. 1977 and Weiser et al. 1977]
---------- Burenellidae
---------- Pseudopleistophoridae
---------- Golbergiidae
---------- Microfilidae
---------- Hesseidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Sprague et al. 1977 and Weiser et al. 1977]
---------- Telomyxidae
---------- Tubulinosematidae
---------- Flabelliformidae
---------- Myosporidae [phylogenetic position after Stentiford et al. 2010]
---------- Areosporiidae
---------- Thelohaniidae [phylogenetic position after Brown & Adamson 2006; Note: a highly polyphyletic family who has not been taxonomically emmended, contributing to the family-level polytomy of Microsporidia]
---------- CHYTRIDIOPSIDA
----------- Chytridiopsidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Sprague et al. 1977 and Weiser et al. 1977]
----------- Buxtehudiidae
---------- Pereziidae
---------- Nadelsporidae
---------- Abelsporidae [phylogenetic position after Baker 1996]
---------- Tetramicridae
---------- Spragueidae
---------- Pleistophoridae
---------- Glugeidae
---------- Ichthyosporidiidae
---------- Cylindrosporidae
---------- Striatosporidae
---------- Bacillidiidae
---------- Janacekiidae
---------- Pseudonosematidae
---------- Mrazekiidae
---------- Neopereziidae [phylogenetic position after Issi et al. 2012]
---------- TERRASPORIDIA
----------- Enterocytozoonidae
----------- Unikaryonidae
----------- Glugoididae
----------- Ordosporidae
----------- Encephalitozoonidae
----------- Nosematidae
----------- Heterovesiculidae [phylogenetic position after Sokolova et al. 2008]
---------- Amblyosporidae
---------- Tuzetiidae
---------- Culicosporellidae
---------- Culicosporidae
---------- Ovavesiculidae [phylogenetic position after Vossbrinck & Andreadis 2007]
---------- Cougourdellidae [phylogenetic position after Hylis et al. 2007]
---------- Gurleyidae
---------- Caudosporidae
---------- Duboscquiidae
-------- FUNGI [higher level phylogeny after Capella-Gutiérrez et al. 2012 and Ebersberger et al. 2012; age constrain after Blair 2009]
--------- Neocallimastigaceae
--------- CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA [phylogeny after James et al. 2006; taxonomy after Powell & Letcher 2012 with exceptions as specified below]
---------- MONOBLEPHARIDOMYCETES
----------- Oedogoniomycetaceae
----------- Harpochytriaceae
----------- Gonapodyaceae
----------- Monoblepharidaceae
---------- CHYTRIDIOMYCETES
----------- Chytridiaceae [including Chytridiomycetaceae after James et al. 2006]
----------- Synchytriaceae
----------- Spizellomycetaceae
----------- Lobulomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Simmons et al. 2009]
----------- RHIZOPHLYCTIDALES [phylogeny after Letcher et al. 2008a]
------------ Borealophlyctidaceae
------------ Arizonaphlyctidaceae
------------ Sonoraphlyctidaceae
------------ Rhizophlyctidaceae
----------- CLADOCHYTRIALES
------------ Cladochytriaceae
------------ Nowakowskiellaceae
------------ Megachytriaceae
------------ Endochytriaceae
------------ Septochytriaceae
----------- RHIZOPHYDIALES [phylogeny after Letcher et al. 2008b]
------------ Globomycetaceae
------------ Dinomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Lepelletier et al. 2014]
------------ Staurastromycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Van den Wyngaert et al. 2017]
------------ Pateramycetaceae
------------ Batrachochytriaceae
------------ Rhizophydiaceae
------------ Aquamycetaceae
------------ Angulomycetaceae
------------ Protrudomycetaceae
------------ Alphamycetaceae
------------ Kappamycetaceae
------------ Gorgonomycetaceae
------------ Terramycetaceae
--------- BLASTOCLADIOMYCOTA [phylogeny after Porter et al. 2011]
---------- Sorochytriaceae
---------- Physodermataceae
---------- Coelomomycetaceae
---------- Catenariaceae
---------- Blastocladiaceae
--------- Completoriaceae
--------- Meristacraceae
--------- Olpidiaceae [phylogenetic position after Sekimoto et al. 2011]
--------- Basidiobolaceae
--------- ENTOMOPHTHORALES [age constrain after Gryganskyi et al. 2012]
---------- Ancylistaceae
---------- Entomophthoraceae
--------- ZOOPAGOMYCOTINA
---------- Zoopagaceae [phylogenetic position after Koehsler et al. 2007]
---------- Piptocephalidaceae
---------- Helicocephalidaceae
---------- Sigmoideomycetaceae
---------- Cochlonemataceae [phylogenetic position after Koehsler et al. 2007]
--------- Asellariaceae [phylogenetic position after Tretter et al. 2013]
--------- Harpellaceae [phylogenetic position after Tretter et al. 2013]
--------- Legeriomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Tretter et al. 2013]
--------- Kickxellaceae [phylogenetic position after Tretter et al. 2013]
--------- Dimargaritaceae [phylogenetic position after Tretter et al. 2013]
--------- Neozygitaceae [phylogenetic position after White et al. 2006]
--------- GLOMEROMYCOTA [phylogeny after Krüger et al. 2012 and Redecker & Raab 2006]
---------- Prototaxitaceae
---------- Paraglomeraceae
---------- ARCHAEOSPORALES
----------- Geosiphonaceae
----------- Ambisporaceae
----------- Archaeosporaceae
---------- GLOMERALES [node age after Simon et al. 1993]
----------- Glomeraceae
----------- Claroideoglomeraceae
---------- DIVERSISPORALES
----------- Gigasporaceae
----------- Pacisporaceae
----------- Sacculosporaceae
----------- Diversisporaceae
----------- Acaulosporaceae
--------- MUCOROMYCOTINA
---------- Mortierellaceae
---------- Endogonaceae
---------- MUCORALES [phylogeny after Hoffmann et al. 2013]
----------- Umbelopsidaceae
----------- Lentamycetaceae
----------- Radiomycetaceae
----------- Cunninghamellaceae [phylogenetic position after Hoffmann et al. 2013 and Ebersberger et al. 2012]
----------- Syncephalastraceae
----------- Lichtheimiaceae
----------- Saksenaeaceae
----------- Phycomycetaceae
----------- MUCORINEAE
------------ Backusellaceae
------------ Pilobolaceae
------------ Rhizopodaceae
------------ Choanephoraceae
------------ Mycotyphaceae
------------ Mucoraceae
--------- DIKARYA
---------- BASIDIOMYCOTA
----------- PUCCINIOMYCOTINA [higher level phylogeny after Arun Kumar et al. 2007]
------------ Cryptomycocolacaceae
------------ Tritirachiaceae [phylogenetic position after Schell et al. 2011]
------------ ATRACTIELLOMYCETES
------------- Atractogloeaceae
------------- Phleogenaceae
------------ CYSTOBASIDIOMYCETES
------------- Naohideaceae
------------- Erythrobasidiaceae
------------- Cystobasidiaceae
------------- Cyphobasidiaceae [phylogenetic position after Millanes et al. 2016]
------------ Mixiaceae
------------ AGARICOSTILBOMYCETES
------------- Spiculogloeaceae
------------- AGARICOSTILBALES
-------------- Kondoaceae
-------------- Chionosphaeraceae
-------------- Agaricostilbaceae
------------ Classiculaceae
------------ MICROBOTRYOMYCETES [phylogeny after Toome et al. 2013]
------------- Heterogastridiaceae
------------- KRIEGERIALES
-------------- Kriegeriaceae
-------------- Camptobasidiaceae
------------- Leucosporidiaceae
------------- Sporidiobolaceae
------------- MICROBOTRYALES
-------------- Ustilentylomataceae
-------------- Microbotryaceae
------------ PUCCINIOMYCETES
------------- Pachnocybaceae
------------- Septobasidiaceae
------------- Helicobasidiaceae
------------- Platygloeaceae
------------- Eocronartiaceae
------------- PUCCINIALES [phylogeny after Aime 2006]
-------------- Pucciniaceae
-------------- Pucciniosiraceae
-------------- Chaconiaceae
-------------- Pileolariaceae
-------------- Uropyxidaceae
-------------- Mikronegeriaceae
-------------- Phakopsoraceae
-------------- Raveneliaceae
-------------- Phragmidiaceae
-------------- Sphaerophragmiaceae
-------------- MELAMPSORINEAE
--------------- Melampsoraceae
--------------- Pucciniastraceae
--------------- Coleosporiaceae
--------------- Cronartiaceae
----------- USTILAGINOMYCOTINA [higher level phylogeny after Begerow et al. 2006 and Wang et al. 2016]
------------ Entorrhizaceae
------------ Talbotiomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Riess et al. 2015]
------------ MICROSTROMATALES
------------- Microstromataceae
------------- Quambalariaceae
------------- Volvocisporiaceae
------------ Tilletiaceae
------------ Ceraceosoraceae
------------ Golubeviaceae
------------ Moniliellaceae
------------ GEORGEFISCHERIALES [phylogeny after Bauer et al. 2005]
------------- Eballistraceae
------------- Gjaerumiaceae
------------- Georgefischeriaceae
------------- Tilletiariaceae
------------ Entylomataceae
------------ DOASSANSIALES [phylogeny after Bauer et al. 1999]
------------- Melaniellaceae
------------- Rhamphosporaceae
------------- Doassansiaceae
------------ EXOBASIDIALES
------------- Cryptobasidiaceae
------------- Brachybasidiaceae
------------- Graphiolaceae
------------- Exobasidiaceae
------------ Malasseziaceae
------------ USTILAGINOMYCETES
------------- Uleiellaceae [phylogenetic position after Riess et al. 2016]
------------- Violaceomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Albu et al. 2015]
------------- Glomosporiaceae
------------- Doassansiopsidaceae
------------- Fereydouniaceae [phylogenetic position after Nasr et al. 2014]
------------- Mycosyringaceae
------------- Floromycetaceae
------------- Urocystidaceae [phylogenetic position after Vánky et al. 2008]
------------- Clintamraceae
------------- Cintractiellaceae
------------- Geminaginaceae
------------- Melanopsichiaceae
------------- Websdaneaceae
------------- Pericladiaceae
------------- Anthracoideaceae
------------- Ustilaginaceae
----------- WALLEMIOMYCETES
------------ Wallemiaceae
------------ Geminibasidiaceae [phylogenetic position after Berbee et al. 2016]
----------- AGARICOMYCOTINA [higher level phylogeny after Hibbett 2006]
------------ Bartheletiaceae [phylogenetic position after Scheuer et al. 2008]
------------ TREMELLOMYCETES [phylogeny after Millanes et al. 2011]
------------- CYSTOFILOBASIDIALES
-------------- Mrakiaceae
-------------- Cystofilobasidiaceae
------------- FILOBASIDIALES
-------------- Piskurozymaceae
-------------- Filobasidiaceae
------------- Holtermanniaceae
------------- Phaeotremellaceae
------------- TRICHOSPORONALES
-------------- Trichosporonaceae
-------------- Tetragoniomycetaceae
------------- TREMELLALES
-------------- Cryptococcaceae
-------------- Tremellaceae
-------------- Bulleribasidiaceae
-------------- Rhynchogastremaceae
-------------- Bulleraceae
-------------- Sirobasidiaceae
-------------- Cuniculitremaceae
-------------- Naemateliaceae
-------------- Carcinomycetaceae
-------------- Trimorphomycetaceae
------------ Dacrymycetaceae
------------ AGARICOMYCETES
------------- Sebacinaceae
------------- CANTHARELLALES [phylogeny after Moncalvo et al. 2006]
-------------- Aphelariaceae
-------------- Botryobasidiaceae
-------------- Ceratobasidiaceae
-------------- Cantharellaceae
-------------- Clavulinaceae
-------------- Hydnaceae
-------------- Tulasnellaceae
------------- AURICULARIALES [phylogeny after Zhou & Dai 2013]
-------------- Oliveoniaceae
-------------- Hyaloriaceae
-------------- Auriculariaceae
------------- Tremellodendropsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Berbee et al. 2016]
------------- Stereopsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Sjökvist et al. 2014 and Berbee et al. 2016]
------------- PHALLOMYCETIDAE
-------------- Geastraceae
-------------- HYSTERANGIALES [phylogeny after Hosaka et al. 2008]
--------------- Phallogastraceae
--------------- Gallaceaceae
--------------- Mesophelliaceae
--------------- Hysterangiaceae
-------------- GOMPHALES [phylogeny after Giachini et al. 2010]
--------------- Gomphaceae [including Lentariaceae and Clavariadelphaceae after Giachini et al. 2010]
--------------- Gautieriaceae
-------------- PHALLALES
--------------- Phallaceae
--------------- Claustulaceae
--------------- Gastrosporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Hibbett & Binder 2002]
------------- Hydnodontaceae
------------- Gloeophyllaceae
------------- CORTICIALES [phylogeny after Ghobad-Nejhad & Ginns 2012]
-------------- Corticiaceae
-------------- Vuilleminiaceae
-------------- Punctulariaceae
------------- HYMENOCHAETALES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Fischer et al. 2006]
-------------- Nigrofomitaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Justo et al. 2017]
-------------- Repetobasidiaceae
-------------- Schizoporaceae
-------------- Hymenochaetaceae
------------- TELEPHORALES
-------------- Bankeraceae
-------------- Thelephoraceae
------------- POLYPORALES [phylogeny after Binder et al. 2013; taxonomy after Justo et al. 2017]
-------------- Ischnodermataceae
-------------- Steccherinaceae
-------------- Meripilaceae
-------------- Podoscyphaceae
-------------- Hyphodermataceae
-------------- Fragiliporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Zhao et al. 2014]
-------------- Panaceae
-------------- Cerrenaceae
-------------- Meruliaceae
-------------- Irpicaceae
-------------- Phanerochaetaceae
-------------- Grifolaceae
-------------- Polyporaceae
-------------- Gelatoporiaceae
-------------- Incrustosporiaceae
-------------- Dacrybolaceae
-------------- Laetiporacaeae
-------------- Sparassidaceae
-------------- Laricifomitaceae
-------------- Fomitopsidaceae
------------- RUSSULALES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Miller et al. 2006]
-------------- Wrightoporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Larsson 2007]
-------------- Albatrellaceae
-------------- Amylostereaceae
-------------- Auriscalpiaceae
-------------- Hericiaceae
-------------- Peniophoraceae
-------------- Russulaceae
-------------- Gloeocystidiellaceae
-------------- Stereaceae
-------------- Xenasmataceae [phylogenetic position after Binder et al. 2005]
-------------- Bondarzewiaceae [=Echinodontiaceae]
------------- Jaapiaceae
------------- AGARICOMYCETIDAE
-------------- Lepidostromataceae [phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2008]
-------------- Atheliaceae
-------------- BOLETALES [phylogeny after Binder & Hibbett 2006; node age after Watkinson & Eastwood 2012]
--------------- Gasterellaceae
--------------- Tapinellaceae
--------------- Serpulaceae
--------------- Coniophoraceae
--------------- Hygrophoropsidaceae
--------------- SULLINEAE
---------------- Suillaceae
---------------- Gomphidiaceae
---------------- Rhizopogonaceae
--------------- Boletaceae
--------------- PAXILLINEAE
---------------- Gyrodontaceae
---------------- Melanogastraceae
---------------- Paxillaceae
--------------- SCLERODERMATINEAE
---------------- Boletinellaceae
---------------- Diplocystaceae [phylogenetic position after Louzan et al. 2006]
---------------- Calostomataceae
---------------- Pisolithaceae
---------------- Gyroporaceae
---------------- Sclerodermataceae
-------------- Amylocorticiaceae
-------------- AGARICALES [phylogeny after Matheny et al. 2006]
--------------- Cystostereaceae [phylogenetic position after Larsson 2007]
--------------- Clavariaceae
--------------- Amanitaceae
--------------- Broomeiaceae
--------------- Fistulinaceae [phylogenetic position after Binder et al. 2005]
--------------- Macrocystidiaceae
--------------- Pleurotaceae
--------------- Limnoperdaceae
--------------- Pluteaceae
--------------- Hygrophoraceae
--------------- Stephanosporaceae
--------------- Pterulaceae
--------------- Typhulaceae
--------------- Marasmiaceae
--------------- Porotheleaceae
--------------- Cyphellaceae
--------------- Physalacriaceae
--------------- Schizophyllaceae
--------------- Lachnellaceae
--------------- Mycenaceae
--------------- Catathelasmataceae
--------------- Tricholomataceae
--------------- Entolomataceae
--------------- Lyophyllaceae
--------------- Agaricaceae [including Gigaspermataceae after Kropp et al. 2012]
--------------- Cystodermataceae
--------------- Nidulariaceae
--------------- Hydnangiaceae
--------------- Psathyrellaceae
--------------- Bolbitiaceae
--------------- Cortinariaceae
--------------- Hymenogastraceae
--------------- Strophariaceae
--------------- Panaeolaceae
--------------- Tubariaceae
--------------- Inocybaceae
--------------- Crepidotaceae
---------- ASCOMYCOTA [higher level phylogeny after Robbertse et al. 2006 and Medina et al. 2011]
----------- TAPHRINOMYCOTINA [phylogeny after Liu et al. 2009]
------------ Neolectaceae [phylogenetic position after Rosling et al. 2011 and Sugiyama et al. 2006]
------------ TAPHRINOMYCETES
------------- Protomycetaceae
------------- Taphrinaceae
------------ Archaeorhizomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Rosling et al. 2011]
------------ Pneumocystidaceae
------------ Schizosaccharomycetaceae
----------- SACCHAROMYCETA
------------ SACCHAROMYCOTINA [phylogenetic position after Shen et al. 2016; higher level phylogeny after Liu et al. 2009; lower level phylogeny after Kurtzman & Robnett 2013]
------------- Lipomycetaceae
------------- Trigonopsidaceae
------------- Trichomonascaceae
------------- Dipodascaceae
------------- Alloascoideaceae
------------- Saccharomycopsidaceae
------------- Ascoideaceae
------------- Phaffomycetaceae
------------- Saccharomycetaceae
------------- Saccharomycodaceae
------------- Pichiaceae
------------- Debaryomycetaceae
------------- Metschnikowiaceae
------------- Endomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Suh & Blackwell 2005]
------------- Cephaloascaceae
------------ PEZIZOMYCOTINA [higher level phylogeny after Schoch et al. 2009b and Gaza et al. 2012]
------------- Triblidiaceae
------------- Orbiliaceae
------------- Eoterfeziaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hansen et al. 2006 and Hyde et al. 2013]
------------- PEZIZALES [Hansen & Pfister 2006]
-------------- Carbomycetaceae
-------------- Pezizaceae
-------------- Ascobolaceae
-------------- Caloscyphaceae
-------------- Rhizinaceae
-------------- Pyronemataceae
-------------- Sarcosomataceae
-------------- Chorioactidaceae
-------------- Sarcoscyphaceae
-------------- Tuberaceae
-------------- Helvellaceae
-------------- Discinaceae
-------------- Morchellaceae
------------- LEOTIOMYCETA
-------------- Geoglossaceae
-------------- Epigloeaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
-------------- Xylonomycetaceae
-------------- Vezdaeaceae [phylogenetic position after Lumbsch et al. 2009]
-------------- Thelocarpaceae [phylogenetic position after Lumbsch et al. 2009]
-------------- Diporothecaceae
-------------- Meliolinaceae
-------------- Moriolaceae
-------------- Phaneromycetaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Gamundí & Spinedi 1985 and Hyde et al. 2013]
-------------- Pyrenothrichaceae
-------------- Bruceomycetaceae
-------------- Coniocybaceae [phylogenetic position after Prieto et al. 2013]
-------------- LICHINALES [phylogeny after Schultz & Büdel 2003]
--------------- Gloeoheppiaceae
--------------- Lichinaceae [including Heppiaceae after Schultz & Büdel 2003]
--------------- Peltulaceae
-------------- EUROTIOMYCETES [higher level phylogeny after Chen et al. 2015]
--------------- MYCOCALICIALES
---------------- Mycocaliciaceae
---------------- Sphinctrinaceae
--------------- Sclerococcaceae [phylogenetic position after Réblová et al. 2017]
--------------- Strangosporaceae
--------------- EUROTIOMYCETIDAE
---------------- Coryneliaceae
---------------- EUROTIALES [phylogeny after Houbraken & Samson 2011]
----------------- Elaphomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Miller et al. 2001]
----------------- Trichocomaceae
----------------- Thermoascaceae
----------------- Aspergillaceae
---------------- ONYGENALES [phylogeny after Geiser et al. 2006]
----------------- Arachnomycetaceae
----------------- Ajellomycetaceae
----------------- Ascosphaeraceae
----------------- Eremascaceae
----------------- Onygenaceae
----------------- Nannizziopsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Stchigel et al. 2013]
----------------- Gymnoascaceae
----------------- Arthrodermataceae
--------------- CHAETOTHYRIOMYCETIDAE
---------------- Rhynchostomataceae [phylogenetic position after Lee et al. 2003]
---------------- PYRENULALES
----------------- Pyrenulaceae
----------------- Requienellaceae
---------------- PHAEOMONIELLALES
----------------- Phaeomoniellaceae
----------------- Celotheliaceae
---------------- VERRUCARIALES
----------------- Adelococcaceae
----------------- Sarcopyreniaceae
----------------- Verrucariaceae
---------------- CHAETOTHYRIALES [phylogeny after Réblová et al. 2013]
----------------- Lyrommataceae
----------------- Epibryaceae
----------------- Strelitzianaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Zhang et al. 2010]
----------------- Microtheliopsidaceae
----------------- Coccodiniaceae [phylogenetic position after Crous et al. 2007a]
----------------- Dactylosporaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Réblová et al. 2017]
----------------- Herpotrichiellaceae
----------------- Cyphellophoraceae
----------------- Trichomeriaceae [phylogenetic position after Chomnunti et al. 2012]
----------------- Chaetothyriaceae
-------------- LECANOROMYCETES [phylogeny after Miadlikowska et al. 2006, Prieto et al. 2013 and Miadlikowska et al. 2014]
--------------- CANDELARIALES
---------------- Pycnoraceae [phylogenetic position after Bendiksby & Timdal 2013]
---------------- Candelariaceae
--------------- ACAROSPORALES
---------------- Acarosporaceae
---------------- Eigleraceae
--------------- UMBILICARIALES
---------------- Ropalosporaceae
---------------- Fuscideaceae
---------------- Ophioparmaceae
---------------- Elixiaceae [phylogenetic position after Bendiksby & Timdal 2013]
---------------- Umbilicariaceae
--------------- OSTROPOMYCETIDAE
---------------- Schaereriaceae
---------------- Loxosporaceae
---------------- Arthrorhaphidaceae
---------------- Hymeneliaceae
---------------- Anamylopsoraceae [phylogenetic position after Lumbsch et al. 2001]
---------------- Trapeliaceae
---------------- Thrombiaceae
---------------- Protothelenellaceae
---------------- Arctomiaceae
---------------- Cameroniaceae [phylogenetic position after Lumbsch et al. 2012]
---------------- Baeomycetaceae
---------------- AGYRIALES
----------------- Coccotremataceae
----------------- Icmadophilaceae
----------------- Pertusariaceae
----------------- Miltideaceae [phylogenetic position after Schmitt et al. 2012]
----------------- Agyriaceae
----------------- Megasporaceae
----------------- Varicellariaceae
----------------- Microcaliciaceae
----------------- Variolariaceae
----------------- Ochrolechiaceae
---------------- Thelenellaceae
---------------- OSTROPALES
----------------- Stictidaceae
----------------- Odontotremataceae [phylogenetic position after Baloch et al. 2013]
----------------- Sagiolechiaceae [phylogenetic position after Baloch et al. 2010]
----------------- Porinaceae [phylogenetic position after Baloch et al. 2013]
----------------- GYALECTALES
------------------ Gyalectaceae
------------------ Phlyctidaceae
------------------ Coenogoniaceae
----------------- Fissurinaceae
----------------- Solorinellaceae
----------------- Gomphillaceae [phylogenetic positon after Lücking et al. 2004]
----------------- Graphidaceae [including Thelotremataceae after Mangold et al. 2008]
--------------- Sporastatiaceae [phylogenetic position after Bendiksby & Timdal 2013]
--------------- Rhizocarpaceae
--------------- LECANOROMYCETIDAE [higher level phylogeny after Gaya et al. 2012]
---------------- Lecideaceae
---------------- PELTIGERALES
----------------- COLLEMATINEAE
------------------ Pannariaceae
------------------ Coccocarpiaceae
------------------ Collemataceae
------------------ Placynthiaceae
----------------- PELTIGERINEAE
------------------ Koerberiaceae [phylogenetic position after Spribille & Muggia 2013]
------------------ Vahliellaceae [phylogenetic position after Spribille & Muggia 2013]
------------------ Massalongiaceae
------------------ Nephromataceae
------------------ Lobariaceae
------------------ Peltigeraceae
---------------- Lopadiaceae
---------------- Leprocaulaceae
---------------- CALICIALES
----------------- Physciaceae
----------------- Caliciaceae
---------------- TELOSCHISTALES
----------------- LETROUITINEAE
------------------ Letrouitiaceae
------------------ Brigantiaeaceae
----------------- TELOSCHISTINEAE
------------------ Megalosporaceae
------------------ Teloschistaceae
---------------- LECANORALES
----------------- Psilolechiaceae
----------------- Pilocarpaceae
----------------- Catillariaceae
----------------- Scoliciosporaceae
----------------- Biatorellaceae
----------------- Malmideaceae [phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2012]
----------------- Sphaerophoraceae
----------------- Calycidiaceae
----------------- Ramalinaceae
----------------- Psoraceae
----------------- Ramboldiaceae
----------------- Haematommataceae [phylogenetic position after Lumbsch et al. 2008]
----------------- Mycoblastaceae
----------------- Parmeliaceae
----------------- Gypsoplacaceae [phylogenetic position after Arup et al. 2007]
----------------- Lecanoraceae
----------------- Carbonicolaceae [phylogenetic position after Bendiksby & Timdal 2013]
----------------- CLADONIINEAE
------------------ Cladoniaceae
------------------ Squamarinaceae
------------------ Stereocaulaceae
-------------- SORDARIOMYCETA
--------------- LEOTIOMYCETES [phylogeny after Wang et al. 2006]
---------------- Aphanopsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Printzen et al. 2012]
---------------- Myxotrichaceae
---------------- Ascocorticiaceae
---------------- Thelebolaceae
---------------- Hyaloscyphaceae
---------------- Erysiphaceae
---------------- Cyttariaceae
---------------- Leotiaceae
---------------- Cudoniaceae
---------------- Rhytismataceae
---------------- Pseudeurotiaceae
---------------- Helotiaceae
---------------- Phacidiaceae
---------------- Bulgariaceae
---------------- Dermateaceae
---------------- Ascodichaenaceae [phylogenetic position after Lantz et al. 2011]
---------------- Vibrisseaceae
---------------- Mollisiaceae
---------------- Loramycetaceae
---------------- Hemiphacidiaceae
---------------- Rutstroemiaceae [excluding Lambertella after Wang et al. 2006]
---------------- Sclerotiniaceae
--------------- LABOULBENIOMYCETES
---------------- Spheciophilaceae
---------------- Pyxidiophoraceae
---------------- LABOULBENIALES [taxonomy after Tavares 1980]
----------------- Herpomycetaceae
----------------- LABOULBENIINEAE
------------------ Ceratomycetaceae
------------------ Euceratomycetaceae
------------------ Laboulbeniaceae
--------------- Batistiaceae [phylogenetic position after Huhndorf et al. 2004]
--------------- SORDARIOMYCETES
---------------- Lautosporaceae
---------------- Meliolaceae [phylogenetic position after Saenz & Taylor 1999]
---------------- Distoseptisporaceae [phylogenetic position after Su et al. 2016]
---------------- Cordanaceae [phylogenetic position after Su et al. 2016]
---------------- Trichosphaeriaceae
---------------- Sporidesmiaceae [phylogenetic position after Su et al. 2016]
---------------- Papulosaceae [phylogenetic position after Su et al. 2016]
---------------- Pisorisporiaceae
---------------- Koralionastetaceae [phylogenetic position after Campbell et al. 2009]
---------------- LULWORTHIALES
----------------- Hispidicarpomycetaceae
----------------- Lulworthiaceae
----------------- Spathulosporaceae
---------------- XYLARIOMYCETIDAE [phylogeny and taxonomy after Senanayake et al. 2015]
----------------- Vialaeaceae [phylogenetic position after Shoemaker et al. 2013]
----------------- Apiosporaceae
----------------- Graphostromataceae
----------------- Pseudomassariaceae
----------------- Hyponectriaceae
----------------- Iodosphaeriaceae
----------------- Melogrammataceae
----------------- Cainiaceae
----------------- Xylariaceae
----------------- Coniocessiaceae
----------------- Diatrypaceae
----------------- Lopadostomaceae
----------------- AMPHISPHAERIALES
------------------ Clypeosphaeriaceae
------------------ Beltraniaceae [phylogenetic position after Shirouzu et al. 2006]
------------------ Amphisphaeriaceae
------------------ Phlogicylindriaceae
------------------ Bartaliniaceae
------------------ Pestalotiopsidaceae
------------------ Discosiaceae
---------------- HYPOCREOMYCETIDAE [phylogeny after Boonyuen et al. 2016 and Réblová et al. 2016]
----------------- Plectosphaerellaceae
----------------- GLOMERELLALES [phylogeny after Réblová et al. 2011]
------------------ Australiascaceae
------------------ Glomerellaceae
------------------ Reticulascaceae
----------------- MICROASCALES
------------------ Ceratocystidaceae
------------------ Gondwanamycetaceae
------------------ Microascaceae
------------------ Halosphaeriaceae
----------------- Fuscosporellaceae
----------------- Conioscyphaceae
----------------- Pleurotheciaceae
----------------- Savoryellaceae
----------------- HYPOCREALES [phylogeny after Sun et al. 2017]
------------------ Stachybotriaceae [phylogenetic position after Castlebury et al. 2004]
------------------ Niessliaceae
------------------ Nectriaceae
------------------ Tilachlidiaceae
------------------ Bionectriaceae
------------------ Calcarisporiaceae
------------------ Cordycipitaceae
------------------ Hypocreaceae
------------------ Ophiocordycipitaceae
------------------ Flammocladiellaceae
------------------ Clavicipitaceae
----------------- Torpedosporaceae
----------------- Juncigenaceae
----------------- Falcocladiaceae
----------------- Etheirosporaceae
----------------- Ceratostomataceae
----------------- Chaetosphaerellaceae [phylogenetic position after Boonyuen et al. 2001]
----------------- Bertiaceae
----------------- Nitschkiaceae
----------------- Coronophoraceae [phylogenetic position after Mugambi & Huhndorf 2010]
----------------- Scortechiniaceae [phylogenetic position after Mugambi & Huhndorf 2010]
---------------- SORDARIOMYCETIDAE
----------------- Amplistromataceae [phylogenetic position after Huhndorf et al. 2009]
----------------- Phomatosporaceae [phylogenetic position after Senanayake et al. 2016]
----------------- PHYLLACHORALES [phylogenetic position after Wanderlei-Silva et al. 2003]
------------------ Phaeochoraceae
------------------ Phyllachoraceae
----------------- Coniochaetaceae
----------------- Cephalothecaceae [phylogenetic position after Huhndorf et al. 2004]
----------------- SORDARIALES [phylogeny after Huhndorf et al. 2004]
------------------ Chaetomiaceae
------------------ Lasiosphaeriaceae
------------------ Sordariaceae
----------------- Chaetosphaeriaceae
----------------- Boliniaceae
----------------- Pleurotremataceae
----------------- Helminthosphaeriaceae [phylogenetic position after Huhndorf et al. 2004]
----------------- MAGNAPORTHALES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Klaubauf et al. 2015]
------------------ Ophioceraceae
------------------ Pyriculariaceae
------------------ Magnaporthaceae
----------------- OPHIOSTOMATALES
------------------ Kathistaceae
------------------ Ophiostomataceae
----------------- Annulatascaceae
----------------- Myrmecridiaceae [phylogenetic position after Arzanlou et al. 2007]
----------------- Thyridiaceae
----------------- Jobellisiaceae [phylogenetic position after Réblová 2008]
----------------- CALOSPHAERIALES
------------------ Pleurostomataceae
------------------ Calosphaeriaceae
----------------- DIAPORTHALES [phylogeny after Kruys & Castlebury 2011]
------------------ Togniniaceae
------------------ Sydowiellaceae
------------------ Lamproconiaceae [phylogenetic position after Norphanphoun et al. 2016]
------------------ Pseudoplagiostomataceae [phylogenetic position after Norphanphoun et al. 2016]
------------------ Stilbosporaceae [phylogenetic position after Norphanphoun et al. 2016]
------------------ Pseudovalsaceae
------------------ Tirisporellaceae [phylogenetic position after Norphanphoun et al. 2016]
------------------ Valsaceae
------------------ Diaporthaceae
------------------ Harknessiaceae [phylogenetic position after Crous et al. 2012]
------------------ Cryphonectriaceae
------------------ Schizoparmaceae
------------------ Juglanconidaceae [phylogenetic position after Voglmayr et al. 2017]
------------------ Melansporellaceae [phylogenetic position after Du et al. 2017]
------------------ Melanconidaceae
------------------ Gnomoniaceae
-------------- DOTHIDEOMYCETA
--------------- Seuratiaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2009]
--------------- Xanthopyreniaceae [phylogenetic position after Pérez-Ortega et al. 2016]
--------------- ARTHONIOMYCETIDAE
---------------- Phaeococcomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2014]
---------------- ARTHONIALES [phylogeny after Ertz & Tehler 2011]
----------------- Melaspileaceae
----------------- Andreiomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Hodkinson & Lendemer 2013]
----------------- Chrysothrichaceae
----------------- Lecanographaceae
----------------- Arthoniaceae
----------------- Roccellographaceae
----------------- Opegraphaceae
----------------- Roccellaceae
--------------- DOTHIDEOMYCETES [phylogeny after Schoch et al. 2009a]
---------------- Polystomellaceae [=Munkiellaceae, tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Kirschsteiniotheliaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
---------------- Valsariaceae [phylogenetic position after Jaklitsch et al. 2015]
---------------- Minutisphaeraceae [phylogenetic position after Raja et al. 2015]
---------------- Parodiellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Englerulaceae [=Schiffnerulaceae, tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Argynnaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Monoblastiaceae [phylogenetic position after Nelsen et al. 2009]
---------------- Lichenotheliaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Aulographaceae [phylogenetic position after Guatimosim et al. 2015]
---------------- Vizellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Abrothallaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
---------------- Natipusillaceae [phylogenetic position after Raja et al. 2013]
---------------- Micropeltidaceae [phylogenetic position after Wu et al. 2011]
---------------- Brefeldiellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Lichenoconiaceae [phylogenetic position after Lawrey et al. 2011]
---------------- Strigulaceae [phylogenetic position after Nelsen et al. 2009]
---------------- Patellariaceae
---------------- Ascoporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Samuels & Romero 1991]
---------------- ASTERINALES
----------------- Asterinaceae [phylogenetic position after Guatimosim et al. 2015]
----------------- Parmulariaceae [phylogenetic position after Guatimosim et al. 2015]
---------------- Wiesneriomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Bezerro et al. 2016]
---------------- Bezerromycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Bezerro et al. 2016]
---------------- Tubeufiaceae [phylogenetic position after Bezerro et al. 2016]
---------------- Acrospermaceae [phylogenetic position after Mapook et al. 2016]
---------------- Dyfrolomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Mapook et al. 2016]
---------------- Muyocopronaceae [phylogenetic position after Mapook et al. 2016]
---------------- Superstratomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
---------------- TRYPETHELIALES
----------------- Polycoccaceae [phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2015]
----------------- Trypetheliaceae
---------------- BOTRYOSPHAERIALES [phylogeny after Slippers et al. 2013 and Wyka & Broders 2016]
----------------- Botryosphaeriaceae
----------------- Phyllostictaceae
----------------- Melanopsaceae
----------------- Planistromellaceae
----------------- Aplosporellaceae
----------------- Saccharataceae
----------------- Septorioideaceae
---------------- VENTURIALES
----------------- Zeloasperisporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Crous et al. 2007b]
----------------- Sympoventuriaceae [phylogenetic postion after Machouart et al. 2013]
----------------- Venturiaceae
---------------- Phaeotrichaceae
---------------- Leptopeltidaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Wu et al. 2011]
---------------- Seynesiopeltidaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Trichothyriaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
---------------- Microthyriaceae
---------------- DOTHIDEOMYCETIDAE
----------------- MYRIANGIALES
------------------ Elsinoaceae
------------------ Myriangiaceae
------------------ Cookellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
----------------- DOTHIDEALES
------------------ Dothideaceae [including Dothioraceae after Thambugala et al. 2014]
------------------ Saccotheciaceae [=Aureobasidiaceae; phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
------------------ Protoscyphaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Mycoporaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Lumbsch 1999]
----------------- CAPNODIALES
------------------ Metacapnodiaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Antennulariellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Euantennariaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Racodiaceae
------------------ Davidiellaceae
------------------ Capnodiaceae
------------------ Naetrocymbaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Teratosphaeriaceae [including Piedraiaceae after Schoch et al. 2009a]
------------------ Cystocoleaceae
------------------ Mycosphaerellaceae
------------------ Extremaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
------------------ Neodevriesiaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
------------------ Dissoconiaceae
------------------ Saccardiaceae [phylogenetic position after Crous et al. 2010]
------------------ Phillipsiellaceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Hyde et al. 2013]
------------------ Schizothyriaceae
---------------- PLEOSPOROMYCETIDAE
----------------- Asterotexiaceae [phylogenetic position after Guatimosim et al. 2015]
----------------- JAHNULALES
------------------ Manglicolaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
------------------ Aliquandostipitaceae [phylogenetic position after van Nieuwenhuijzen et al. 2016]
----------------- Eremomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Giraldo et al. 2014]
----------------- Gloniaceae
----------------- Mytilinidiaceae
----------------- Diademaceae [tentative phylogenetic position and circumscription after Ariyawansa et al. 2014]
----------------- Hysteriaceae
----------------- PLEOSPORALES
------------------ Massariaceae
------------------ Mesnieraceae [tentative phylogenetic position after Parker 1982]
------------------ Zopfiaceae
------------------ Delitschiaceae
------------------ Salsugineaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa]
------------------ Caryosporaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------ Astrosphaeriellaceae
------------------ Aigialaceae
------------------ Wicklowiaceae
------------------ Lindgomycetaceae
------------------ Halotthiaceae
------------------ Amniculicolaceae
------------------ Ohleriaceae [phylogenetic position after Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016]
------------------ Paradictyoarthriniaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------ Biatriosporaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------ Amorosiaceae [phylogenetic position after Thambugala et al. 2015]
------------------ Occultibambusaceae [phylogenetic position after Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016]
------------------ Nigrogranaceae [phylogenetic position after Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016]
------------------ Thyridariaceae [=Roussouellaceae; including Arthopyreniaceae after Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016]
------------------ Torulaceae [phylogenetic position after Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2016]
------------------ Sporormiaceae
------------------ Teichosporaceae [including Floricolaceae after Jaklitsch et al. 2016]
------------------ Lophiostomataceae
------------------ Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae [phylogenetic position after Phookamsak et al. 2015]
------------------ Hermatomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Hashimoto et al. 2017]
------------------ Anteagloniaceae
------------------ Platystomaceae [phylogenetic position after Zhang et al. 2012a]
------------------ Testudinaceae
------------------ Hypsostromataceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------ Tetraplosphaeriaceae
------------------ Aquasubmersaceae [phylogenetic position after Hashimoto et al. 2017]
------------------ Cryptocoryneaceae [phylogenetic position after Hashimoto et al. 2017]
------------------ Lophiotremataceae [including Platystomaceae after Thambugala et al. 2015]
------------------ Pleomassariaceae [phylogenetic position after Zhang et al. 2012a]
------------------ Pseudodidymellaceae [phylogenetic position after Hashimoto et al. 2017]
------------------ Melanommataceae
------------------ Cyclothyriellaceae
------------------ Corynesporascaceae
------------------ MASSARINEAE
------------------- Morosphaeriaceae
------------------- Macrodiplodiopsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Trematosphaeriaceae
------------------- Pseudoperisporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Mapook et al. 2016]
------------------- Lentitheciaceae
------------------- Dictyosporiaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Parabambusicolaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Montagnulaceae
------------------- Latoruaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Sulcatisporaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Bambusicolaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Didymosphaeriaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Periconiaceae [phylogenetic position after Tanaka et al. 2015]
------------------- Massarinaceae
------------------ PLEOSPORINEAE
------------------- Halojulellaceae
------------------- Ascocylindricaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Didymellaceae
------------------- Dacampiaceae [phylogenetic position after Ertz et al. 2015]
------------------- Shiraiaceae [phylogenetic position Zhang et al. 2012b]
------------------- Phaeosphaeriaceae
------------------- Perisporiopsidaceae [phylogenetic position after Chaverri & Gazis 2010]
------------------- Libertasomycetaceae [phylogenetic position after Crous & Groenewald 2017]
------------------- Coniothyriaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Leptosphaeriaceae
------------------- Neophaeosphaeriaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Dothidotthiaceae [phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Cucurbitariaceae [including Fenestellaceae after Wanasinghe et al. 2017; phylogenetic position after Ariyawansa et al. 2015]
------------------- Podonectriaceae [phylogenetic position after Dao et al. 2016]
------------------- Pleosporaceae
------- HOLOZOA
-------- MESOMYCETOZOEA [phylogeny after Torruella et al. 2015]
--------- DERMOCYSTIDA [phylogeny after Cafaro 2005]
---------- Dermocystidiaceae
---------- Rhinosporidiaceae
--------- ICHTHYOSPOREA
---------- Psorospermidae [phylogenetic position after Reynolds et al. 2017]
---------- Piridae
---------- Creolimacidae
---------- ECCRINIDA [phylogeny after Reynolds et al. 2017]
----------- Amoebidiidae
----------- Ichthyophonidae
----------- Paramoebidiidae
----------- Eccrinidae
----------- Parataeniellidae
-------- Corallochytriidae
-------- FILOZOA
--------- FILASTEREA
---------- Capsasporidae
---------- Ministeriidae
--------- CHOANIMALIA
---------- CHOANOFLAGELLATEA [phylogeny and taxonomy after Nitsche et al. 2011]
----------- Salpingoecidae
----------- ACANTHOECIDA
------------ Acanthoecidae
------------ Stephanoecidae
---------- METAZOA [higher level phylogeny after Simion et al. 2017]
----------- PORIFERA [higher level phylogeny after Simion et al. 2017]
------------ SILICISPONGIA
------------- DEMOSPONGIAE
------------- HEXACTINELLIDA [phylogeny after Wörheide et al. 2012; phylogenetic position of unsampled families (extant) in molecular studies after Henkel et al. 2015; taxonomy and phylogenetic position of extinct families after Reiswig 2006]
-------------- Protospongiidae
-------------- AMPHIDISCOPHORA
--------------- Pelicaspongiidae
--------------- AMPHIDISCOSIDA
---------------- Monorhaphididae
---------------- Pheronematidae
---------------- Hyalonematidae
-------------- HEXASTEROPHORA
--------------- Brachiospongiidae
--------------- AULOCALYCOIDEA
---------------- Aulocalycidae
---------------- Uncinateridae
--------------- HEXACTINOSIDA
---------------- Cribrospongiidae
---------------- Tretodictyidae
---------------- Euretidae
---------------- Craticulariidae
---------------- Farreidae
---------------- Aphrocallistidae
--------------- Dactylocalycidae
--------------- LYSSACINIDA
---------------- Euplectellidae
---------------- Leucopsacidae
---------------- Rossellidae
--------------- LYCHNOSCOSIDA [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Finks et al. 2004; phylogenetic position after Reiswig 2006 and Parker 1982]
---------------- Ventriculitidae
---------------- Camerospongiidae
---------------- Neoaulocystidae
---------------- Diapleuridae
---------------- Callodictyonidae
---------------- Becksiidae
------------ HOMOSCLEROMORPHA [phylogeny and taxonomy after Gazave et al. 2010]
------------- Plakinidae
------------- Oscarellidae
------------ CALCAREA [phylogeny after Voigt et al. 2012; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Finks et al. 2004]
------------- CALCINEA
-------------- Clathrinidae
-------------- Levinellidae
-------------- Murrayonidae
-------------- Leucaltidae
-------------- Leucascidae
-------------- Leucettidae
-------------- Dendyidae
-------------- STELLISPONGIIDA
--------------- Endostomiidae
--------------- Stellispongiidae
--------------- Peronidellidae
------------- CALCARONEA
-------------- Sphaerocoeliidae
-------------- LITHONIDA
--------------- Porosphaeridae
--------------- Bactronellidae
--------------- Minchinellidae
-------------- Leucosolenidae
-------------- Sycanthidae
-------------- Amphoriscidae
-------------- Grantiidae
-------------- Heteropiidae
-------------- Jenkinidae
-------------- Lelapiidae
-------------- Sycettidae
-------------- BAERIDA
--------------- Petrobionidae
--------------- Baeriidae
--------------- Trichogypsiidae
----------- EUMETAZOA
------------ CTENOPHORA [higher level phylogeny after Nosenko et al. 2013, lower level phylogeny after Podar et al. 2001]
------------- Stromatoveridae [phylogenetic position after Antcliffe & Brasier 2007]
------------- Xanioascidae
------------- Fasciculidae
------------- Ctenorhabdotidae
------------- Pleurobrachiidae
------------- Aulacoctenidae
------------- Bathyctenidae
------------- Dryodoridae
------------- Euplokamidae
------------- Lampeidae
------------- PLATYCTENIDA
-------------- Coeloplanidae
-------------- Ctenoplanidae
-------------- Lyroctenidae
-------------- Tjalfiellidae
------------- Cambojiidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ospovat 1985]
------------- Mertensiidae
------------- Beroidae
------------- Haeckeliidae
------------- CYCLOCOELA
-------------- Cryptolobatidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ospovat 1985]
-------------- Ganeshidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ospovat 1985]
-------------- Ocyropsidae
-------------- Bathocyroidae
-------------- Lampoctenidae
-------------- Lobatolampeidae
-------------- Kiyohimeidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Matsumoto & Robinson 1992]
-------------- Eurhamphaeidae
-------------- Cestidae
-------------- Bolinopsidae
-------------- Leucotheidae
-------------- Mnemiidae
-------------- Thalassocalycidae
------------ PARAHOXOZOA
------------- Trichoplacidae
------------- PLANULOZOA
-------------- CNIDARIA
-------------- BILATERIA [higher level phylogeny after Hejnol et al. 2009 (phylogenetic position of Phoronidae is ignored due to its poor gene sampling, which is presumably the reason of its inconsistency with other studies)]
--------------- XENACOELOMORPHA [phylogenetic position after Cannon et al. 2016; taxonomy after Zhang et al. 2011]
---------------- Xenoturbellidae
---------------- ACOELOMORPHA
----------------- NEMERTODERMATIDA
------------------ Ascopariidae
------------------ Nemertodermatidae
----------------- ACOELA [taxonomy and phylogeny after Jondelius et al. 2011]
------------------ Diopisthoporidae
------------------ Antigonariidae
------------------ Antroposthiidae
------------------ Nadinidae
------------------ Taurididae
------------------ BITESTICULATA
------------------- Paratomellidae
------------------- BURSALIA
-------------------- PROSOPHARYNGIDA
--------------------- Hallangiidae
--------------------- Solenofilomorphidae
--------------------- Hofsteniidae
-------------------- CRUCIMUSCULATA
--------------------- Proporidae
--------------------- Isodiametridae
--------------------- Actinoposthiidae
--------------------- Otocelididae
--------------------- Dakuidae
--------------------- ABERRANTOSPERMATA
--------------------- Convolutidae
--------------------- Mecynostomidae
--------------- NEPHROZOA
---------------- PROTOSTOMIA
----------------- CHAETOGNATHA [phylogenetic position and phylogeny after Matus et al. 2006]
------------------ Sagittidae [including Krohnittidae after Marlétaz et al. 2006]
------------------ Biphragmosagittidae
------------------ Bathybelidae
------------------ Pterokrohniidae
------------------ Spadellidae [including Pterosagittidae after Marlétaz et al. 2006]
------------------ Eukrohniidae
------------------ Heterokrohniidae
----------------- ECDYSOZOA [higher level phylogeny after Campbell et al. 2011; age constrain after Rehm et al. 2011]
------------------ LORICIFERA
------------------- Nanaloricidae
------------------- Pliciloricidae
------------------ NEMATOIDA
------------------- NEMATODA [age constrain Blaxter 2009]
------------------- NEMATOMORPHA [Bleidorn et al. 2002]
-------------------- Nectonemidae
-------------------- GORDIOIDA
--------------------- Gordiidae
--------------------- Chordodidae
------------------ SCALIDOPHORA
------------------- KINORHYNCHA [phylogeny after Yamasaki et al. 2013; taxonomy after Zhang et al. 2013]
-------------------- ALLOMALORHAGIDA
--------------------- Dracoderidae
--------------------- Pycnophyidae
--------------------- Franciscideridae [phylogenetic position after Sørensen et al. 2015]
--------------------- Neocentrophyidae
-------------------- CYCLORHAGIDA
--------------------- Campyloderidae
--------------------- Echinoderidae
--------------------- Condyloderidae
--------------------- Centroderidae [phylogenetic position after Sørensen et al. 2015]
--------------------- KENTRORHAGATA
---------------------- Antygomonidae
---------------------- Semnoderidae
---------------------- Zelinkaderidae
---------------------- Cateriidae [phylogenetic position after Sørensen et al. 2015]
------------------- PRIAPULIDA [phylogeny after Wills 1998 and Wills et al. 2012]
-------------------- Sicyophoridae
-------------------- Palaeoscolecidae
-------------------- Maotianshaniidae
-------------------- Ancalagonidae
-------------------- Fieldiidae
-------------------- Tubiluchidae
-------------------- Selkirkiidae
-------------------- EUPRIAPULIDA [phylogeny of extant families after Dong et al. 2005]
--------------------- Maccabeidae
--------------------- Halycryptidae [phylogenetic position after Janssen et al. 2009]
--------------------- Priapulidae
--------------------- Ottoiidae
--------------------- Miskoiidae
--------------------- Anningiidae
--------------------- Corynetidae
------------------ PANARTHROPODA [higher level phylogeny after Rota-Stabelli et al. 2011]
------------------- TARDIGRADA [higher level phylogeny after Marley et al. 2011; phylogenetic position of unsampled families in molecular analyses after Nichols et al. 2006; taxonomy after Zhang et al. 2011]
-------------------- EUTARDIGRADA [classification a and phylogeny after Bertonali et al. 2014]
--------------------- Milnesiidae
--------------------- PARACHELA
---------------------- Beornidae
---------------------- Necopinatidae
---------------------- ISOHYPSIBIOIDEA
----------------------- Hexapodibiidae [phylogenetic position after Cesari et al. 2016]
----------------------- Isohypsibiidae
---------------------- Eohypsibiidae
---------------------- MACROBIOTOIDEA [after Guidetti et al. 2016]
----------------------- Macrobiotidae
----------------------- Richtersiidae
----------------------- Murrayidae
---------------------- HYPSIBIOIDEA
----------------------- Ramazzottiidae
----------------------- Microhypsibiidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Pilato 1998]
----------------------- Calohypsibiidae
----------------------- Hypsibiidae
-------------------- HETEROTARDIGRADA [phylogeny after Jørgensen et al. 2010]
--------------------- Archechiniscidae
--------------------- Halechiniscidae
--------------------- Oreellidae
--------------------- Carphaniidae
--------------------- Batillipedidae
--------------------- Coronarctidae
--------------------- Echiniscidae
--------------------- Echiniscoididae
--------------------- Neoarctidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fujimoto & Miyazaki 2013]
--------------------- Neostygarctidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fujimoto & Miyazaki 2013]
--------------------- Renaudarctidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fujimoto & Miyazaki 2013]
--------------------- Stygarctidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Fujimoto & Miyazaki 2013]
------------------- ONYCHOPHORA
-------------------- UDEONYCHOPHORA
--------------------- Helenodoridae
--------------------- EUONYCHOPHORA [age constrain after Murienne et al. 2013]
---------------------- Peripatidae
---------------------- Peripatopsidae
-------------------- Xenusiidae
-------------------- Paucipodiidae
-------------------- Euconchariidae
-------------------- Cardiodyctiidae
-------------------- Hallucigeniidae
-------------------- Luolishaniidae
------------------- ARTHROPODA [higher leven phylogeny after Rehm et al. 2014 and von Reumont et al. 2012; age constrain after Rehm et al. 2011]
-------------------- TRILOBITA
-------------------- CHELICERATA
-------------------- MANDIBULATA
--------------------- MYRIAPODA
--------------------- PANCRUSTACEA [higher level phylogeny after Regier et al. 2010]
---------------------- OLIGOSTRACA
---------------------- ALTOCRUSTACEA [age constrain after Rehm et al. 2011]
----------------------- MULTICRUSTACEA
----------------------- BRANCHIOPODA
----------------------- MIRACRUSTACEA [higher level phylogeny after Schwentner et al. 2017]
------------------------ Hutchinsoniellidae
------------------------ HEXAPODA [age constrain after Rehm et al. 2011]
------------------------ REMIPEDIA [phylogeny and taxonomy after Hoenemann et al. 2013]
------------------------- Tesnusocarididae
------------------------- NECTIOPODA
-------------------------- Micropacteridae
-------------------------- Godzilliidae
-------------------------- Kumongidae
-------------------------- Cryptocorynetidae
-------------------------- Xibalbanidae [recognized after Olesen et al. 2017]
-------------------------- Morlockiidae
-------------------------- Pleomothridae
-------------------------- Speleonectidae
----------------- SPIRALIA [higher level phylogeny after Struck et al. 2014]
------------------ GNATHIFERA
------------------- GNATHOSTOMULIDA [phylogeny after Sørensen et al. 2006; phylogenetic position after Wey-Fabrizius et al. 2014]
-------------------- FILOSPERMOIDEA
--------------------- Haplognathiidae
--------------------- Pterognathiidae
-------------------- BURSOVAGINOIDEA
--------------------- Austrognathiidae
--------------------- SCLEROPERALIA
---------------------- Problognathiidae
---------------------- Rastrognathiidae
---------------------- Onychognathiidae
---------------------- Gnathostomulidae
---------------------- Agnathiellidae
---------------------- Clausognathiidae
---------------------- Mesognathariidae
------------------- Limnognathiidae [phylogenetic position after Lu et al. 2017]
------------------- SYNDERMATA [higher level phylogeny after Wey-Fabrizius et al. 2014 and Witek et al. 2008; taxonomy after Zhang et al. 2011 with exceptions as specified below]
-------------------- HEMIROTATORIA
--------------------- BDELLOIDA [phylogeny after Lasek-Nesselquist 2012]
---------------------- Adinetidae
---------------------- Habrotrochidae
---------------------- Philodinavidae
---------------------- Philodinidae
--------------------- PARAROTATORIA
---------------------- Seisonidae
---------------------- ACANTHOCEPHALA [phylogeny after Near 2002 and Verweyen et al. 2012]
----------------------- ARCHIACANTHOCEPHALA
------------------------ Apororhynchidae
------------------------ Gigantorhynchidae
------------------------ Moniliformidae
------------------------ Oligacanthorhynchidae
----------------------- Polyacanthorhynchidae
----------------------- EOACANTHOCEPHALA
------------------------ Quadrigyridae
------------------------ NEOECHINORHYNCHIDA
------------------------- Neoechinorhynchidae
------------------------- Tenuisentidae
------------------------- Dendronucleatidae
----------------------- PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA
------------------------ Pyrirhynchidae
------------------------ Fessisentidae
------------------------ Pomphorhynchidae
------------------------ Rhadinorhynchidae
------------------------ Gymnorhadinorhynchidae [phylogenetic position after Braicovich et al. 2014]
------------------------ Isthmosacanthidae [phylogenetic position after Braicovich et al. 2014]
------------------------ Illiosentidae
------------------------ Arhythmacanthidae
------------------------ Echinorhynchidae
------------------------ Cavisomidae
------------------------ Transvenidae
------------------------ POLYMORPHIDA
------------------------- Plagiorhynchidae
------------------------- Centrorhynchidae
------------------------- Polymorphidae
-------------------- MONOGONATA [phylogeny after Sørensen & Giribet 2006; phylogenetic position of unsampled families in molecular studies after Sørensen 2002]
--------------------- GNESIOTROCHA
---------------------- Hexarthridae
---------------------- Conochilidae
---------------------- Flosculariidae
---------------------- Testudinellidae
---------------------- Trochosphaeridae
---------------------- COLLOTHECACEAE
----------------------- Atrochidae
----------------------- Collothecidae
--------------------- PLOIMA
---------------------- Lepadellidae
---------------------- Tetrasiphonidae
---------------------- Birgeidae
---------------------- Epiphanidae
---------------------- Cotylegaleatidae
---------------------- Notommatidae
---------------------- Lindiidae
---------------------- Proalidae
---------------------- Ituridae
---------------------- Dicranophoridae
---------------------- Asciaporrectidae [phylogenetic positon after De Smet 2006]
---------------------- Mytilinidae
---------------------- Synchaetidae
---------------------- Asplanchnidae
---------------------- Trichotriidae
---------------------- Lecanidae
---------------------- Brachionidae
---------------------- Scaridiidae
---------------------- Gastropodidae
---------------------- Trichocercidae
---------------------- Microcodidae
---------------------- Euchlanidae
------------------ PLATYTROCHOZOA
------------------- ROUPHOZOA
-------------------- PLATYHELMINTHES
-------------------- GASTROTRICHA [phylogeny after Paps & Riutort 2012; phylogenetic position of unsampled families in molecular studies after Hochberg & Litvaitis 2000; taxonomy after Zhang et al. 2013]
--------------------- PAUCITUBULATINA
---------------------- Xenotrichulidae
---------------------- Muselliferidae
---------------------- Chaetonotidae
---------------------- Dichaeturidae
---------------------- Proichthydidae
---------------------- Dasydytidae
---------------------- Neogosseidae
--------------------- MACRODASYIDA
---------------------- Neodasyidae
---------------------- Cephalodasyidae
---------------------- Redudasyidae [phylogenetic position after Todaro et al. 2012]
---------------------- Dactylopodolidae
---------------------- Lepidodasyidae
---------------------- Macrodasyidae
---------------------- Planodasyidae
---------------------- Thaumastodermatidae
---------------------- Hummondasyidae [phylogenetic position after Todaro et al. 2014]
---------------------- Turbanellidae
---------------------- Xenodasyidae
------------------- LOPHOTROCHOZOA
-------------------- ANNELIDA
-------------------- BRACHIOPODA
-------------------- MOLLUSCA
-------------------- Phoronidae [phylogenetic position after Nesnidal et al. 2013]
-------------------- BRYOZOA
-------------------- MESOZOA [phylogenetic position after Lu et al. 2017; taxonomy after ITIS 2016]
--------------------- ORTHONECTIDA
---------------------- Rhopaluridae
---------------------- Pelmatosphaeridae
--------------------- RHOMBOZOA
---------------------- Conocyemidae
---------------------- Kantharellidae
---------------------- Dicyemidae
-------------------- Symbiidae
-------------------- ENTOPROCTA [phylogeny after Fuchs et al. 2010]
--------------------- Loxosomatidae
--------------------- COLONIALES
---------------------- Loxocalypodidae [phylogenetic position after Emschermann 1972]
---------------------- STOLONATA
----------------------- Pedicellinidae
----------------------- Barentsiidae
-------------------- NEMERTEA [higher level phylogeny after Andrade et al. 2014; taxonomy after Norenburg & Gibson 2017 with exceptions as specified below]
--------------------- PALAEONEMERTEA
---------------------- Tubulanidae
---------------------- Cephalothricidae
---------------------- Carinomidae
--------------------- NEONEMERTEA
---------------------- PILIDIOPHORA
----------------------- Hubrechtiidae
----------------------- HETERONEMERTEA [phylogeny after Schwartz & Norenburg 2001]
------------------------ Gorgonorhynchidae
------------------------ Lineidae
------------------------ Mixolineidae
------------------------ Polybrachiorhynchidae
------------------------ Riseriidae [recognized after Schwartz & Norenburg 2001]
------------------------ Valenciniidae
---------------------- ENOPLA
----------------------- POLYSTILIFERA
------------------------ Drepanogigantidae
------------------------ Drepanophoridae
------------------------ Paradrepanophoridae
------------------------ PELAGICA [phylogeny after Maslakova & Norenburg 2001]
------------------------- Armaueriidae
------------------------- Balaenanemertidae
------------------------- Chuniellidae
------------------------- Dinonemertidae
------------------------- Planktonemertidae
------------------------- Nectonemertidae
------------------------- Pelagonemertidae
------------------------- Protopelagonemertidae
------------------------- Phallonemertidae
----------------------- MONOSTYLIFERA
------------------------ Cratenemertidae
------------------------ EUMONOSTYLIFERA
------------------------- Acteonemertidae
------------------------- Amphiporidae
------------------------- Prostomatidae
------------------------- Carcinonemertidae
------------------------- Emplectonematidae
------------------------- Malacobdellidae
------------------------- Zygonemertidae [recognized after Tollesson & Norenbugr 2003 and Chernyshev 2005]
------------------------- Sacconemertidae [recognized after Tollesson & Norenbugr 2003 and Chernyshev 2005]
------------------------- Prosorhochmidae
------------------------- Tetrastemmatidae [including Oerstediidae after Tollesson & Norenbugr 2003]
------------------------- Ototyphlonemertidae
------------------------- Poseidonemertidae [recognized after Tollesson & Norenbugr 2003 and Chernyshev 2005]
---------------- DEUTEROSTOMIA [higher level phylogeny after Cannon et al. 2016]
--------------- AMBULACRARIA
------------------ ECHINODERMATA
------------------ HEMICHORDATA [phylogeny of extant families after Osborn et al. 2012]
------------------- Harrimaniidae
------------------- Spengelidae
------------------- Ptychoderidae
------------------- Torquaratoridae
----------------- GRAPTOLITHOIDEA [higher level phylogeny after Mitchell et al. 2013]
-------------------- Cephalodiscidae
------------------ GRAPTOLITHINA
--------------------- Rhabdopleuridae
--------------------- Bithecocamaridae
--------------------- Mastigograptidae
--------------------- Chaunograptidae
--------------------- Acanthograptidae
--------------------- Dendrograptidae
------------------- GRAPTOLOIDEA [phylogeny after Chen & Finney 1985, Fortey et al. 2005, Carlucci 2008, Maletz et al. 2009 and Mitchell et al. 1995]
---------------------- Anisograptidae
-------------------- EUGRAPTOLOIDEA
--------------------- SINOGRAPTOIDEA
------------------------ Dichograptidae
------------------------ Sinograptidae
------------------------ Kinnegraptidae
--------------------- PANRECLINATA
------------------------ Pterograptidae
------------------------ Didymograptidae
---------------------- TETRAGRAPTOIDEA
------------------------- Tetragraptidae
------------------------- Phyllograptidae
---------------------- PANBIRECLINATA
------------------------- Isograptidae
------------------------- Arienigraptidae
------------------------- Cryptograptidae
------------------------- Cardiograptidae
------------------------- AXONOPHORA [phylogeny after Mitchell et al. 2007 and Štorch et al. 2011]
-------------------------- Leptograptidae
-------------------------- Dicranograptidae
-------------------------- Climacograptidae
------------------------ DIPLOGRAPTOIDEA
--------------------------- Diplograptidae
--------------------------- Lasiograptidae
------------------------ NEOGRAPTINA
--------------------------- Normalograptidae
--------------------------- Glyptograptidae
--------------------------- Dimorphograptidae
--------------------------- Monograptidae
------------------------- RETIOLITOIDEA
---------------------------- Petalolithidae
---------------------------- Retiolitidae
--------------- CHORDATA [higher level phylogeny after Delsuc et al. 2008]
------------------ Branchiostomidae
--------------- OLFACTORES
------------------- TUNICATA [phylogeny after Shenkar et al. 2016 and Tsagkogeorga et al. 2009]
-------------------- APPENDICULARIA
--------------------- Fritillariidae
--------------------- Kowalevskiidae
--------------------- Oikopleuridae
-------------------- STOLIDOBRANCHIA
--------------------- Molgulidae
--------------------- Pyuridae
--------------------- Styelidae
-------------------- Agneziidae
-------------------- Dimeatidae
-------------------- Cionidae
-------------------- Perophoridae
-------------------- Plurellidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Kott 1973]
-------------------- Ascidiidae
-------------------- Octacnemidae
-------------------- Hypobythiidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Kott 1969]
-------------------- Corellidae
----------------- THALIACEA
--------------------- Pyrosomatidae
--------------------- Salpidae
--------------------- DOLIOLIDA
---------------------- DOLIOLIDINA
----------------------- Doliolidae
----------------------- Doliopsoididae
---------------------- DOLIOPSIDINA
----------------------- Doliolunidae
----------------------- Doliopsidae
----------------------- Paradoliopsidae
-------------------- APLOUSOBRANCHIA [phylogeny after Turon & Lopez-Legentil 2004; tentative phylogenetic position of unsampled families in molecular studies after Moreno & Rocha 2008]
--------------------- Stomozoidae
--------------------- Didemnidae
--------------------- Euherdmaniidae
--------------------- Holozoidae
--------------------- Polycitoridae
--------------------- Polyclinidae
--------------------- Protopolyclinidae
--------------------- Pseudodistomidae
--------------------- Ritterellidae
--------------------- Pycnoclavellidae
--------------------- Clavelinidae
--------------------- Diazonidae
--------------------- Aplidiidae
------------------- Pikaiidae [phylogenetic position after García-Bellido et al. 2014]
------------------- VERTEBRATA [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Heimberg et al. 2010; higher level phylogeny of extinct groups and basal families after Conway Morris & Jean-Bernard 2014; age constrain after Hedges 2009b]
-------------------- Myllokunmingiidae
-------------------- Achanarellidae [phylogenetic position after Samsom et al. 2010]
-------------------- Euphaneropidae [age range after Newman & Trewin 2001]
-------------------- Endeiolepididae [age range after Janvier et al. 2006]
-------------------- CYCLOSTOMATA [phylogeny after Delarbre et al. 2000, taxonomy after Froese & Pauly 2014; age constrain after Kuraku et al. 2009]
--------------------- MYXINI
---------------------- Gilpichthyidae
---------------------- Myxinidae
--------------------- PETROMYZONTIFORMES [age constrain after Gess et al. 2006]
---------------------- Mayomyzontidae
---------------------- PETROMYZONTIDA [age constrain after Kuraku & Kuratani 2006]
----------------------- Petromyzontidae
----------------------- Geotriidae
----------------------- Mordaciidae
-------------------- EUCONODONTA [phylogeny after Sweet & Donoghue 2001]
--------------------- Icriodontidae
--------------------- PRIONIODINIDA
---------------------- Prioniodinidae
---------------------- Hibbardellidae
--------------------- OZHARKODINIDA
---------------------- Cavusgnathidae
---------------------- Spathognathodontidae
-------------------- Jaymoytiidae
-------------------- ANASPIDA
--------------------- Pharyngolepididae
--------------------- Pterygolepididae
--------------------- Rhyncholepididae
--------------------- BIRKENIIDA
---------------------- Birkeniidae
---------------------- Lasaniidae
-------------------- THELODONTI [phylogeny after Wilson & Märss 2009; support for monophyly after Wilson & Märss 2004]
--------------------- Archipelepididae
--------------------- Nikoliviidae
--------------------- Lanarkiidae
--------------------- FURCACAUDIFORMES
---------------------- Pezopallichthyidae
---------------------- Furcacaudidae
---------------------- Drepanolepididae
--------------------- Turiniidae
--------------------- Thelodontidae
--------------------- KATOPORIDA
---------------------- Loganellidae
---------------------- Phlebolepididae
---------------------- Eestilepididae
---------------------- Shieliidae
-------------------- PTERASPIDIMORPHI [phylogeny after Pernègre & Elliott 2007]
--------------------- ARANDASPIDA
---------------------- Sacambaspididae
---------------------- Arandaspididae
--------------------- HETEROSTRACOMORPHI
---------------------- Astraspididae
---------------------- Lepidaspididae
---------------------- Traquairaspididae
---------------------- HETEROSTRACI
----------------------- Tolypelepididae
----------------------- PTERASPIDIFORMES
------------------------ Cardipeltidae
------------------------ PSAMMOSTEIDA
------------------------- Drepanaspididae
------------------------- Obrucheviidae
------------------------- Guerichosteidae
------------------------- Pycnosteidae
------------------------- Psammosteidae
------------------------ Protopteraspididae
------------- Doryaspididae
------------------------ PTERASPIDOIDEI
------------------------- Pteraspididae
------------------------- Podolaspididae
------------------------- Gigantaspididae
------------------------- Protaspididae
----------------------- CYATHASPIDIFORMES [phylogeny after Lundgren & Blom 2013]
------------------------ Corvaspididae
------------------------ CYATHASPIDA
------------------------- Ariaspididae
------------------------- Cyathaspididae
------------------------ AMPHIASPIDA
------------------------- Ctenaspididae
------------------------- Siberiaspididae
------------------------- HIBERNASPIDOIDEI
-------------------------- Aphataspididae
-------------------------- Hibernaspididae
-------------------------- Eglonaspididae
------------------------- AMPHIASPIDOIDEI
-------------------------- Edaphaspididae
-------------------------- Angaraspididae
-------------------------- Amphiaspididae
-------------------------- Gabreyaspididae
-------------------------- Olbiaspididae
-------------------- Pituriaspidae
-------------------- GALEASPIDA [phylogeny ater Zhu & Gai 2006]
--------------------- Hanyangaspidae
--------------------- Xiushuiaspidae
--------------------- Dayongaspididae
--------------------- EUGALEASPIDIFORMES
---------------------- Sinogaleaspidae
---------------------- Eugaleaspididae
--------------------- POLYBRANCHIASPIDIFORMES
---------------------- Geraspididae
---------------------- Pentathyraspididae
---------------------- Polybranchiaspididae
---------------------- Duyunolepididae
---------------------- Zhaotongaspididae
---------------------- HUANANASPIDIFORMES
----------------------- Sanchaspididae
----------------------- Gantarostraspididae
----------------------- Sanqiaspididae
----------------------- Huananaspidae
-------------------- OSTEOSTRACI [phylogeny after Samsom 2009]
--------------------- Ateleaspididae
--------------------- Hemicyclaspididae
--------------------- CORNUTA
---------------------- Cephalaspididae
---------------------- ZENASPIDIDA
----------------------- Parameteoraspididae
----------------------- Scolenaspididae
----------------------- Zenaspididae
---------------------- Pattenaspididae
---------------------- BENNEVIASPIDIDA
----------------------- Benneviaspididae
----------------------- BOREASPIDOIDEI
------------------------ Hoelaspididae
------------------------ Boreaspididae
---------------------- THYESTIDA
----------------------- Thyestidae
----------------------- Witaaspididae
----------------------- KIAERASPIDOIDEA
----------------------- Kiaeraspididae
----------------------- Acrotomaspididae
----------------------- TREMATASPIDOIDEA
------------------------ Saaremaaspididae
------------------------ Dartmuthiidae
------------------------ Timanaspididae
------------------------ Tremataspididae
------------------------ Sclerodontidae
------------------------ Tannuaspididae
-------------------- GNATHOSTOMATA [higher level phylogeny of extinct groups after Qiao et al. 2016]
--------------------- Paraplesiobatidae [phylogenetic position after Carr et al. 2009]
--------------------- Stensioellidae [phylogenetic position after Carr et al. 2009]
--------------------- Brindabellaspidae
--------------------- ANTIARCHI [phylogeny after Jia et al. 2010]
---------------------- Silurolepidae
---------------------- Yunnanolepidae
---------------------- Chuchinolepidae
---------------------- Minicranidae
---------------------- ANTIARCHIFORMES
----------------------- Sinolepidae
----------------------- ASTEROLEPIDOIDEA
------------------------ Asterolepididae
------------------------ Pterichthyodidae
----------------------- BOTHRIOLEPIDOIDEA
------------------------ Microbrachiidae
------------------------ Jiangxilepidae
------------------------ Bothriolepidae
--------------------- ACANTHOTHORACI [phylogenetic position after Carr et al. 2009]
---------------------- Hagiangellidae
---------------------- Weejasperaspididae
---------------------- Palaeacanthaspidae
--------------------- Ptyctodontidae
--------------------- Macropetalichthyidae
--------------------- Quasipetalichthyidae
--------------------- Asterosteidae [=Gemuendinidae, Jagorinidae; phylogenetic position after Carr et al. 2009]
--------------------- ARTHRODIRA
---------------------- Actinolepidae
---------------------- Wuttagoonaspididae
---------------------- Antarctaspididae [phylogenetic position after Dupret et al. 2009]
---------------------- PHYLLOLEPIDA [phylogenetic position after Dupret et al. 2009]
----------------------- Gavinaspididae
----------------------- Phyllolepididae
---------------------- PHLYCTAENIOIDEI
----------------------- Holonematidae
----------------------- PHLYCTAENIINA
------------------------ Groenlandaspididae
------------------------ Phlyctaeniidae
------------------------ ARCTASPIDOIDEI [phylogenetic position after Dupret et al. 2009]
------------------------- Arctolepidae
------------------------- Arctaspididae
---------------------- BRACHYTHORACI
----------------------- Heterosteidae
----------------------- COCCOSTEINA
------------------------ BUCHANOSTEOIDEA
------------------------- Buchanosteidae
------------------------- Goodradigbeeonidae
------------------------ Gemuendaspididae
------------------------ Homosteidae
------------------------ BRACHYDEIROIDEA
------------------------- Brachydeiridae
------------------------- Leptosteidae
------------------------ EUBRACHYTHORACI
------------------------- Plourdosteidae
------------------------- Torosteidae
------------------------- COCCOSTEOMORPHI [phylogeny after Johnson & Elliott 1995]
-------------------------- Coccosteidae
-------------------------- Pholidosteidae
-------------------------- Camuropiscidae
-------------------------- Incisoscutidae
------------------------- PACHYOSTEOMORPHI [phylogeny after Carr & Hlavin 2010]
-------------------------- Dunkleosteidae
-------------------------- Trematosteidae
-------------------------- Leiosteidae
-------------------------- ASPINNOTHORACIDI
--------------------------- Selenosteidae
--------------------------- Rhinosteidae
--------------------------- Rachiosteidae
--------------------------- Bungartiidae
--------------------------- Braunosteidae
--------------------------- Titanichthyidae
--------------------------- Dinichthyidae
--------------------------- Hadrosteidae
--------------------- EUGNATHOSTOMATA [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Irisarri et al. 2017; age constrain after Hedges 2009b]
---------------------- Euthacanthidae
---------------------- Kathemacanthidae
---------------------- Brochoadmonidae
---------------------- Gyracanthidae
---------------------- Climatiidae
---------------------- Culmacanthidae
---------------------- Gladiobranchidae [phylogenetic position after Hanke & Davis 2008]
---------------------- Diplacanthidae
---------------------- Mesacanthidae
---------------------- Acanthodidae
---------------------- Cheiracanthidae
---------------------- ISCHNACANTHIFORMES
----------------------- Poracanthodidae
----------------------- Ischnacanthidae
---------------------- CHONDRICHTHYES [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Irisarri et al. 2017; taxonomy of extant families after Froese & Pauly 2014, with some exceptions as specified below; age constrain of crown group after Heinicke et al. 2009a; higher level phylogeny of basal extinct groups after Qiao et al. 2016]
----------------------- Wellingtonellidae [age range and tentative phylogenetic position after Märss et al. 2002]
----------------------- Omalodontidae
----------------------- Kannathalepididae [phylogenetic position after Märss & Gagnier 2001]
----------------------- Listracanthidae [phylogenetic position after Martill et al. 2010]
----------------------- Squatinactidae [phylogenetic position after Märss & Gagnier 2001]
----------------------- Antarctilamnidae [phylogenetic position after Märss & Gagnier 2001]
----------------------- Bandringidae [phylogenetic position after Märss & Gagnier 2001]
----------------------- Sphenacanthidae
----------------------- Ctenacanthidae
----------------------- XENACANTHIFORMES
------------------------ Xenacanthidae
------------------------ Orthacanthidae
------------------------ Diplodoselachidae
------------------------ Thrinacodontidae [phylogenetic position after Grogan & Lund 2008]
----------------------- Cladoselachidae
----------------------- SYMMORIIDA [phylogeny after Sequeira and Coates 2000]
------------------------ Falcatidae
------------------------ Stethacanthidae
------------------------ Symmoriidae
------------------------ Denaeidae
----------------------- HOLOCEPHALI
------------------------ Helodontidae [phylogenetic position after Coates et al. 2017]
------------------------ Desmiodontidae
------------------------ Polysentoridae
------------------------ Orodontidae
------------------------ Squalorajidae
------------------------ INIOPTERYGIFORMES
------------------------- Iniopterygidae
------------------------- Sibyrhynchidae
------------------------ EUGENODONTIFORMES
------------------------- Caseodontidae
------------------------- EDESTOIDEA
-------------------------- Agassizodontidae
-------------------------- Edestidae
------------------------ PETALODONTIFORMES
------------------------- Janassidae
------------------------- PETALODONTOIDEI
-------------------------- Pristodontidae
-------------------------- Petalodontidae
-------------------------- Belantseidae
------------------------ HOLOCEPHALIMORPHA
------------------------- Debeeriidae [phylogenetic position after Coates et al. 2017]
------------------------- Chondrenchelyidae [phylogenetic position after Coates et al. 2017]
------------------------- Psammodontidae
------------------------- Traquairiidae
------------------------- MENASPIDIFORMES
-------------------------- Menaspidae
-------------------------- Deltoptychiidae
------------------------- CHIMAERIFORMES
-------------------------- Myriacanthidae
-------------------------- Echinochimaeridae
-------------------------- CHIMAEROIDEI [phylogeny after Inoue et al. 2010; age constrains among extant lineages after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
--------------------------- Edaphodontidae
--------------------------- Callorhinchidae
--------------------------- Rhinochimaeridae
--------------------------- Chimaeridae
----------------------- ELASMOBRANCHII
------------------------ Tristychiidae [phylogenetic position after Coates et al. 2017]
------------------------ Ptychodontidae
------------------------ HYBODONTOIDEI
------------------------- Lonchidiidae
------------------------- Acrodontidae
------------------------- Hybodontidae
------------------------ NEOSELACHI [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Coates 2007 and Mutter et al. 2007]
------------------------- Ostenoselachidae [phylogenetic position after Duffin 1998]
------------------------- Protospinacidae [phylogenetic position after Underwood 2002]
------------------------- Palaeospinacidae
------------------------- Orthacodontidae
------------------------- BATOIDEA [phylogeny of extant families after Aschliman et al. 2012; taxonomy after Last et al. 2016; age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
-------------------------- Sclerorhynchidae [phylogenetic position after Kriwet 2005]
-------------------------- RAJOIDEI
--------------------------- Rajidae
--------------------------- Cyclobatidae [phylogenetic position after Klaeson 2010]
--------------------------- Anacanthobatidae
--------------------------- Crurirajidae [recognized after Aschliman et al. 2012]
--------------------------- Arhynchobatidae
-------------------------- Platyrhinidae
-------------------------- TORPEDINIFORMES [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
--------------------------- Narkidae
--------------------------- Narcinidae
--------------------------- Torpedinidae
--------------------------- Hypnidae
-------------------------- Trygonorrhinidae
-------------------------- Rhinobatidae
-------------------------- Rhinidae
-------------------------- Glaugostegidae
-------------------------- Pristidae
-------------------------- Zanobatidae
-------------------------- MYLIOBATOIDEI
--------------------------- Rhombodontidae
--------------------------- Plesiobatidae
--------------------------- Hexatrygonidae
--------------------------- Urolophidae
--------------------------- Gymnuridae
--------------------------- DASYATOIDEA [age constrain after Del Risco et al. 2017]
---------------------------- Dasyatidae
---------------------------- Urotrygonidae
---------------------------- Potamotrygonidae
-------------------------- Myliobatidae
-------------------------- Aetobatidae
-------------------------- Rhinopteridae
-------------------------- Mobulidae
------------------------- SELACHII [phylogeny after Sorenson 2014 and Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011; age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
-------------------------- SQUALOMORPHII [phylogeny after Straube et al. 2015; age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
--------------------------- HEXANCHIFORMES [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
---------------------------- Chlamydoselachidae
---------------------------- Crassonotidae [phylogenetic position after Kriwet & Klug 2011]
---------------------------- Hexanchidae
--------------------------- Echinorhinidae
--------------------------- Pristiophoridae
--------------------------- SQUATINIFORMES
---------------------------- Pseudorhinidae
---------------------------- Squatinidae
--------------------------- SQUALIFORMES
---------------------------- Squalidae
---------------------------- Centrophoridae
---------------------------- Dalatiidae
---------------------------- Etmopteridae
---------------------------- Somniosidae
---------------------------- Oxynotidae
-------------------------- GALEOMORPHII [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
--------------------------- Heterodontidae
--------------------------- GALEOIDEA [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
---------------------------- ORECTOLOBIFORMES [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
----------------------------- Parascylliidae
----------------------------- Brachaeluridae
----------------------------- Orectolobidae
----------------------------- Hemiscylliidae
----------------------------- Rhincodontidae
----------------------------- Stegostomatidae
----------------------------- Ginglymostomatidae
---------------------------- CARCHARHINIFORMES [age constrain after Heinicke et al. 2009a]
----------------------------- Scyliorhinidae
----------------------------- Atelomycteridae [recognized after Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011]
----------------------------- Galeidae [recognized after Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011]
----------------------------- Proscylliidae
----------------------------- Pseudotriakidae
----------------------------- Triakidae
----------------------------- Leptochariidae
----------------------------- Hemipristidae [recognized after Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011]
----------------------------- Hemigaleidae
----------------------------- Carcharhinidae
----------------------------- Galeocerdidae [recognized after Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011]
----------------------------- Sphyrnidae
---------------------------- LAMNIFORMES
----------------------------- Mitsukurinidae
----------------------------- Cardabiodontidae
----------------------------- Eoptolamnidae
----------------------------- Cretoxyrhinidae
----------------------------- Alopiidae
----------------------------- Odontaspididae
----------------------------- Pseudocarchariidae
----------------------------- Megachasmidae
----------------------------- Carchariidae [recognized after Vélez-Zuazo & Agnarsson 2011]
----------------------------- Cetorhinidae
----------------------------- Otodontidae
----------------------------- Anacoracidae
----------------------------- Lamnidae
---------------------- EUTELEOSTOMI [age constrain after Hedges 2009b]
----------------------- Andreolepididae [phylogenetic position after Botella et al. 2007]
----------------------- ACTINOPTERYGII [phylogeny of extant families after Betancur-R et al. 2013a; updated after Betancur et al. 2014; phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Swartz 2009; taxonomy of extant families after Froese & Pauly 2014 with exceptions specified below; age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------ Howqualepididae
------------------------ Gonatodidae
------------------------ Kentuckiidae
------------------------ Paphosiscidae [phylogenetic position after Grogan & Lund 2015]
------------------------ Cornuboniscidae [phylogenetic position after Sepkoski 2002]
------------------------ Woodichthyidae
------------------------ Phanerorhynchidae [phylogenetic position after Long 2013]
------------------------ Haplolepidae [phylogenetic position after Sepkoski 2002]
------------------------ Amblypteridae
------------------------ Paramblypteridae
------------------------ Carbovelidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Gardiner 1967]
------------------------ Commentryidae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Urosthenidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Gardiner 1967]
------------------------ Varialepididae [phylogenetic position after Ivanov et al. 2013]
------------------------ Elonichthyidae
------------------------ Canobiidae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Stegotrachelidae
------------------------ Tegeolepididae
------------------------ Pygopteridae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Acrolepididae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Cheirolepidae
------------------------ Palaeoniscidae
------------------------ Mimiidae
------------------------ Moythomasiidae
------------------------ Guildayichthyidae
------------------------ Tarrasiidae
------------------------ Aesopichthyidae
------------------------ Rhadinichthyidae
------------------------ Aeduellidae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Ptycholepididae [phylogenetic position after Dietze 2000]
------------------------ Redfieldiidae [phylogenetic position after Lund & Poplin 2002]
------------------------ Polypteridae
------------------------ Dorypteridae [phylogenetic position after Lund 2000]
------------------------ EURYNOTIFORMES
------------------------- Amphicentridae [phylogenetic position after Lund 2000]
------------------------- Styracopteridae
------------------------- Mesolepididae
------------------------ PLATYSOMOIDEI [phylogenetic position after Lund 2000]
------------------------- Chirodontidae
------------------------- Platysomidae
------------------------- Bobastrainiidae
------------------------ Boreosomidae [phylogenetic position after Xu and Gao 2011]
------------------------ ACTINOPTERI
------------------------- Birgeriidae
------------------------- Coccolepidae [López-Arbarello et al. 2013]
------------------------- CHONDROSTEI [phylogeny after Grande & Bemis 1996]
-------------------------- Saurichthyidae
-------------------------- ACIPENSERIFORMES
--------------------------- Chondrosteidae
--------------------------- ACIPENSERISTOMI
---------------------------- Peipiaosteidae
---------------------------- ACIPENSEROIDEI [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
----------------------------- Acipenseridae
----------------------------- Polyodontidae
------------------------- Pholidopleuridae
------------------------- PERLEIDIFORMES [phylogeny after Neuman & Mutter 2005]
-------------------------- Cleithrolepidae
-------------------------- Gabanellidae [phylogenetic position after Tintori & Lombardo 1996]
-------------------------- Perleididae
------------------------- Peltopleuridae
------------------------- Thoracopteridae
------------------------- Luganoiidae
------------------------- NEOPTERYGII [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Xu et al. 2014; age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
-------------------------- Pachycormidae
-------------------------- Dapediidae
-------------------------- Acentrophoridae
-------------------------- PYCNODONTIFORMES [phylogeny after Nursall 2010 and Taverne & Capasso 2016]
--------------------------- Brembodontidae
--------------------------- Gibbodontidae
--------------------------- Coccodontidae
--------------------------- Gyrodontidae
--------------------------- Pycnodontidae
-------------------------- HOLOSTEI [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
--------------------------- GINGLYMODI [phylogeny after López-Arbarello 2012]
---------------------------- Uarbryichthyidae
---------------------------- Macrosemiidae
---------------------------- Semionotidae
---------------------------- LEPISOSTEIFORMES
----------------------------- Lepidotidae
----------------------------- LEPISOSTEOIDEA
------------------------------ Obaichthyidae
------------------------------ Lepisosteidae
--------------------------- HALECOMORPHI
---------------------------- Parasemionotidae
---------------------------- IONOSCOPIFORMES
----------------------------- Ophiopsidae
----------------------------- Ionoscopidae
---------------------------- AMIIFORMES
----------------------------- Paracentrophoridae
----------------------------- CATUROIDEA
------------------------------ Liodesmidae
------------------------------ Caturidae
----------------------------- AMIOIDEA
------------------------------ Sinamiidae
------------------------------ Amiidae
-------------------------- TELEOSTEI [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Arratia 2013]
--------------------------- Aspidorhynchidae
--------------------------- Ichthyokentemidae
--------------------------- Siyuichthyidae
--------------------------- Pholidophoridae
--------------------------- Archaeomaenidae
--------------------------- Koonwarriidae
--------------------------- Catervariolidae
--------------------------- Ankylophoridae
--------------------------- Leptolepidae
--------------------------- Ascalaboidae [phylogenetic position after Arratia 2016]
--------------------------- Varasichthyidae [phylognetic position after Arratia 2008]
--------------------------- Luisiellidae [phylogenetic position after Sferco et al. 2015]
--------------------------- TELEOCEPHALA [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
---------------------------- Araripichthyidae
---------------------------- ELOPOMORPHA [age constrain after Johnson et al. 2012]
----------------------------- ELOPIFORMES [ age constrain after Johnson et al. 2012]
----------------------------- Elopidae
----------------------------- Megalopidae
----------------------------- Osmeroididae
----------------------------- Phyllodontidae
----------------------------- Albulidae
----------------------------- Pterothrissidae [phylogenetic position after Dornburg et al. 2015]
----------------------------- NOTACANTHOIDEI
------------------------------ Notacanthidae
------------------------------ Halosauridae
----------------------------- ANGUILLIFORMES [age constrain after Johnson et al. 2012]
------------------------------ Anguillavidae
------------------------------ Anguilloididae
------------------------------ Paranguillidae
------------------------------ Patavichthyidae
------------------------------ Milananguillidae
------------------------------ Chlopsidae [non-monophyly after Santini 2013]
------------------------------ Protanguillidae
------------------------------ Synaphobranchidae
------------------------------ Serrivomeridae
------------------------------ Cyematidae [phylogenetic position after Santini 2013]
------------------------------ MURAENOIDEI [age constrain after Johnson et al. 2012]
------------------------------- Heterenchelyidae
------------------------------- Myrocongridae
------------------------------- Muraenidae
------------------------------ Nettastomatidae
------------------------------ Congridae
------------------------------ Derichthyidae
------------------------------ Colocongridae
------------------------------ Ophichthidae
------------------------------ Muraenesocidae
------------------------------ Moringuidae
------------------------------ Nemichthyidae
------------------------------ Anguillidae
------------------------------ SACCOPHARYNGOIDEI [age constrain after Johnson et al. 2012]
------------------------------- Monognathidae
------------------------------- Saccopharyngidae
------------------------------- Eurypharyngidae
---------------------------- OSTEOGLOSSOCEPHALAI
----------------------------- OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Hilton 2003]
------------------------------ Lycopteridae
------------------------------ ICHTHYODECTIFORMES
------------------------------- Chuhsiungichthiidae
------------------------------- Ichthyodectidae
------------------------------ Hiodontidae
------------------------------ OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES
------------------------------- Wakinoichthiidae
------------------------------- NOTOPTEROIDEI
-------------------------------- Notopteridae
-------------------------------- MORMYROIDEA
--------------------------------- Mormyridae
--------------------------------- Gymnarchidae
------------------------------- OSTEOGLOSSOIDEI
-------------------------------- Pantodontidae
-------------------------------- Arapaimidae
-------------------------------- Osteoglossidae
----------------------------- CLUPEOCEPHALA
------------------------------ CROSSOGNATHIFORMES [phylogeny after Arratia 2008; phylogenetic position after Taverne 2000]
------------------------------- Crossognathidae
------------------------------- PACHYRHIZONTOIDEI
-------------------------------- Notelopidae
-------------------------------- Pachyrhizodontidae
------------------------------ TSELFATIIFORMES [phylogenetic position after Taverne 2000]
------------------------------- Protobramidae
------------------------------- Plethodidae
------------------------------ OTOCEPHALA [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------------- CLUPEOMORPHA
-------------------------------- ELLIMICHTHYIFORMES [phylogenetic position after Hay et al. 2007]
--------------------------------- Paraclupeidae
--------------------------------- Sorbinichthyidae
-------------------------------- CLUPEIFORMES [phylogeny after Lavoué et al. 2013]
--------------------------------- Denticipitidae
--------------------------------- CLUPEOIDEI
---------------------------------- Chirocentridae
---------------------------------- Pristigasteridae
---------------------------------- Engraulidae
---------------------------------- Clupeidae [including Sundasalangidae, and Dussumieriidae after Lavoué et al. 2013]
------------------------------- ALEPOCEPHALIFORMES
-------------------------------- Alepocephalidae
-------------------------------- Leptochilichthyidae
-------------------------------- Bathylaconidae
-------------------------------- Platytroctidae
------------------------------- OSTARIOPHYSI
-------------------------------- GONORYNCHIFORMES
--------------------------------- Gonorynchidae
--------------------------------- Chanidae
--------------------------------- KNERIOIDEI
---------------------------------- Kneriidae
---------------------------------- Phractolaemidae
-------------------------------- OTOPHYSI [phylogeny after Arcila et al. 2017]
--------------------------------- CYPRINIFORMES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Mayden & Chen 2010]
---------------------------------- Paedocyprididae
---------------------------------- CYPRINOIDEA
----------------------------------- Psilorhynchidae
----------------------------------- Cyprinidae [not monophyletic until formal recognition of "Rasboridae/Danionidae" family]
----------------------------------- Leptobarbidae
----------------------------------- Sundadanionidae
----------------------------------- Cultridae [recognized to avoid partial non-monophyly of Cyprinidae]
----------------------------------- Acheilognathidae
----------------------------------- Tincidae
----------------------------------- Tanichthyidae
----------------------------------- Leuciscidae
----------------------------------- Gobionidae
---------------------------------- COBITOIDEA [phylogeny after Slechtová et al. 2007; taxonomy after Kottelat 2012]
----------------------------------- Catostomidae
----------------------------------- Gyrinocheilidae
----------------------------------- Botiidae
----------------------------------- Vaillantellidae
----------------------------------- Cobitidae
----------------------------------- Ellopostomatidae
----------------------------------- Nemacheilidae
----------------------------------- Barbuccidae
----------------------------------- Balitoridae
----------------------------------- Gastromyzontidae
----------------------------------- Serpenticobitidae
--------------------------------- CHARACIPHYSI
---------------------------------- CHARACIFORMES [Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Arcila et al. 2017 are strongly supported by Oliveira et al. 2005 and are thus represented here]
----------------------------------- CITHARINOIDEI
------------------------------------ Distichodontidae
------------------------------------ Citharinidae
----------------------------------- CHARACOIDEI
------------------------------------ Crenuchidae
------------------------------------ Hepsetidae
------------------------------------ Alestidae
------------------------------------ Lebiasinidae
------------------------------------ Ctenoluciidae
------------------------------------ Chalceidae
------------------------------------ Characidae
------------------------------------ Iguanodectidae
------------------------------------ Acestrorhynchidae
------------------------------------ Bryconidae [phylogenetic position after Oliveira et al. 2005]
------------------------------------ Triportheidae
------------------------------------ Gasteropelecidae
------------------------------------ Erythrinidae
------------------------------------ Parodontidae
------------------------------------ Cynodontidae
------------------------------------ Serrasalmidae
------------------------------------ Hemiodontidae
------------------------------------ ANOSTOMOIDEA
------------------------------------- Anostomidae
------------------------------------- Prochilodontidae
------------------------------------- Chilodidae
------------------------------------- Curimatidae
---------------------------------- SILURIPHYSI
----------------------------------- GYMNOTIFORMES
------------------------------------ Apteronotidae
------------------------------------ Sternopygidae
------------------------------------ Gymnotidae
------------------------------------ RHAMPHICHTHYOIDEA
------------------------------------- Rhamphichthyidae
------------------------------------- Hypopomidae
----------------------------------- SILURIFORMES [phylogenetic position of families not sampled in Arcila et al. 2017 after Sullivan et al. 2006 and Wang et al. 2016; Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Arcila et al. 2017 are strongly supported by Sullivan et al. 2006 and are thus represented here]
------------------------------------ Andinichthyidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Ferraris et al. 2002]
------------------------------------ Hypsidoridae [phylogenetic position after Grande & de Pinna 1998]
------------------------------------ LORICARIOIDEI
------------------------------------- Nematogenyidae
------------------------------------- Trichomycteridae
------------------------------------- Callichthyidae
------------------------------------- Scoloplacidae
------------------------------------- Astroblepidae
------------------------------------- Loricariidae
------------------------------------ Diplomystidae
------------------------------------ SILUROIDEI
------------------------------------- Plotosidae
------------------------------------- Pangasiidae
------------------------------------- Austroglanididae
------------------------------------- Lacantuniidae
------------------------------------- Ritidae [phylogenetic position after Sullivan et al. 2006]
------------------------------------- Auchenoglanididae
------------------------------------- Kryptoglanidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Britz et al. 2014]
------------------------------------- Siluridae
------------------------------------- ICTALUROIDEA
-------------------------------------- Cranoglanididae
-------------------------------------- Ictaluridae
------------------------------------- ARIOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Anchariidae
-------------------------------------- Ariidae
------------------------------------- CLARIOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Clariidae
-------------------------------------- Heteropneustidae
------------------------------------- Chacidae
------------------------------------- Cetopsidae
------------------------------------- Aspredinidae
------------------------------------- DORADOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Doradidae
-------------------------------------- Auchenipteridae
------------------------------------- PIMELODOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Heptapteridae
-------------------------------------- Pimelodidae
-------------------------------------- Pseudopimelodidae
------------------------------------- Claroteidae
------------------------------------- Malapteruridae
------------------------------------- Amphiliidae
------------------------------------- Mochokidae
------------------------------------- Schilbeidae
------------------------------------- Bagridae [including Olyridae after Sullivan et al. 2006]
------------------------------------- Ailiidae
------------------------------------- Horabagridae
------------------------------------- SISOROIDEA
-------------------------------------- Akysidae
-------------------------------------- Amblycipitidae
-------------------------------------- Sisoridae
-------------------------------------- Erethistidae
------------------------------ EUTELEOSTEI
------------------------------- Lepidogalaxiidae
------------------------------- Protostomiatidae
------------------------------- PROTACANTHOPTERYGII [phylogenetic position after Zou et al. 2011]
-------------------------------- Galaxiidae
-------------------------------- Salmonidae
-------------------------------- ESOCIFORMES [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
--------------------------------- Umbridae
--------------------------------- Esocidae
-------------------------------- ARGENTINOIDEI
--------------------------------- Microstomatidae
--------------------------------- Bathylagidae
--------------------------------- ARGENTINOIDEA
---------------------------------- Opisthoproctidae
---------------------------------- Argentinidae
------------------------------- STOMIATII [phylogenetic position after Zou et al. 2011]
-------------------------------- OSMERIFORMES
--------------------------------- Retropinnidae
--------------------------------- Osmeridae
--------------------------------- Salangidae
--------------------------------- Plecoglossidae
-------------------------------- STOMIIFORMES
--------------------------------- Stomiidae
--------------------------------- Diplophidae
--------------------------------- Gonostomatidae
--------------------------------- Chauliodontidae
--------------------------------- Phosichthyidae
--------------------------------- Sternoptychidae
------------------------------- NEOTELEOSTEI
-------------------------------- Ateleopodidae
-------------------------------- EURYPTERYGII
--------------------------------- Cheirothricidae [Dietze 2009]
--------------------------------- AULOPIFORMES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Davis 2010; phylogenetic position after Silva & Gallo 2011]
---------------------------------- Synodontidae
---------------------------------- Dercetidae
---------------------------------- Ichthyotringidae
---------------------------------- Apateopholidae
---------------------------------- Harpadontidae
---------------------------------- Pseudotrichonotidae
---------------------------------- Paraulopidae
---------------------------------- Aulopidae
---------------------------------- Bathysauridae
---------------------------------- Giganturidae
---------------------------------- Bathysauroididae
---------------------------------- Ipnopidae
---------------------------------- Bathysauropsidae
---------------------------------- Chlorophthalmidae
---------------------------------- Scopelarchidae
---------------------------------- Notosudidae
---------------------------------- Evermannellidae
---------------------------------- Sudidae
---------------------------------- Paralepididae [including Lestidiidae after Davis et al. 2010]
---------------------------------- ALEPISAUROIDEA
----------------------------------- Polymerichthyidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Uyeno 1967]
----------------------------------- Alepisauridae
----------------------------------- ENCHODONTOIDEI [Davis & Fielitz 2010]
------------------------------------ Cimolichthyidae
------------------------------------ Tomognathidae
------------------------------------ Eurypholidae
------------------------------------ Enchodontidae
--------------------------------- CTENOSQUAMATA
---------------------------------- MYCTOPHIFORMES
----------------------------------- Myctophidae
----------------------------------- Neoscopelidae
---------------------------------- ACANTHOMORPHA [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
----------------------------------- Pharmacichthyidae
----------------------------------- Pycnosteroididae
----------------------------------- Aipichthyidae
----------------------------------- Sphenocephalidae
----------------------------------- Ctenothrissidae
----------------------------------- LAMPRIDIFORMES [phylogeny after Wiley et al. 1998]
------------------------------------ Bajaichthyidae
------------------------------------ Veliferidae
------------------------------------ Palaeocentrotidae
------------------------------------ Lophotidae
------------------------------------ Radiicephalidae
------------------------------------ Regalecidae
------------------------------------ Trachipteridae
------------------------------------ Lampridae
------------------------------------ Turkmenidae
----------------------------------- PARACANTHOMORPHACEA
------------------------------------ PERCOPSIFORMES
------------------------------------- Percopsidae
------------------------------------- APHREDODEROIDEI
-------------------------------------- Amblyopsidae
-------------------------------------- Aphredoderidae
------------------------------------ ZEIOGADIFORMES
------------------------------------- ZEIOIDEI
-------------------------------------- Protozeidae [phylogenetic position after Tyler & Santini 2005]
-------------------------------------- Archaeozeidae [phylogenetic position after Tyler & Santini 2005]
-------------------------------------- Cyttidae
-------------------------------------- Oreosomatidae
-------------------------------------- Cretazeidae [phylogenetic position after Tyler & Santini 2005]
-------------------------------------- Parazenidae
-------------------------------------- Zenionidae
-------------------------------------- Zeidae
-------------------------------------- Grammicolepididae
------------------------------------- GADARIAE
-------------------------------------- Stylephoridae [phylogenetic position after Miya et al. 2007]
-------------------------------------- GADIFORMES [phylogeny and taxonomy after Roa-Varón & Ortí 2009]
--------------------------------------- Muraenolepididae
--------------------------------------- Melanonidae
--------------------------------------- Merlucciidae
--------------------------------------- Bregmacerotidae
--------------------------------------- Ranicipitidae
--------------------------------------- Trachyrincidae
--------------------------------------- Euclichthyidae
--------------------------------------- Moridae
--------------------------------------- Gadidae
--------------------------------------- MACRUROIDEI
---------------------------------------- Bathygadidae
---------------------------------------- Macrouridae
---------------------------------------- Macruronidae
---------------------------------------- Steindachneriidae
----------------------------------- Polymixiidae
----------------------------------- ACANTHOPTERYGII [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------------------ BEYCIFORMES
------------------------------------- TRACHICHTHYOIDEI
-------------------------------------- Diretmidae
-------------------------------------- Trachichthyidae
-------------------------------------- Monocentridae
-------------------------------------- Anomalopidae
------------------------------------- Barbourisiidae
------------------------------------- Rondeletiidae
------------------------------------- Cetomimidae
------------------------------------- Berycidae
------------------------------------- STEPHANOBERYCOIDEI
-------------------------------------- Melamphaidae
-------------------------------------- Stephanoberycidae
-------------------------------------- Gibberichthyidae
-------------------------------------- Hispidoberycidae
------------------------------------ Holocentridae
------------------------------------ PERCOMORPHA
------------------------------------- OPHIDIIFORMES
-------------------------------------- Bythitidae [including Aphyonidae after Møller et al. 2016 and Parabrotulidae after Campbell et al. 2017]
-------------------------------------- OPHIDIOIDEI
--------------------------------------- Carapidae
--------------------------------------- Ophidiidae
------------------------------------- Batrachoididae
------------------------------------- Nardoichthyidae
------------------------------------- GOBIOMORPHARIA
-------------------------------------- KURTIFORMES
--------------------------------------- Kurtidae
--------------------------------------- Apogonidae
-------------------------------------- TRICHONOTOIDEI
--------------------------------------- Trichonotidae [phylogenetic position after Thacker et al. 2015]
--------------------------------------- GOBIIFORMES [phylogeny after Agorreta et al. 2013, taxonomy after Thacker 2009, node ages after Chakrabarty et al. 2009 except for Eleotridae/Gobiidae LCA node]
---------------------------------------- Milyeringidae [recognition and phylogenetic position after Chakrabarty et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------- Rhyacichthyidae
---------------------------------------- Odontobutidae
---------------------------------------- Eleotridae
---------------------------------------- Butidae
---------------------------------------- Thalasseleotrididae [recognition and phylogenetic position after Gill & Mooi 2012]
---------------------------------------- Gobionellidae
---------------------------------------- Gobiidae
------------------------------------- SCOMBRIMORPHARIA
-------------------------------------- Normanichthyidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Velez et al. 2003]
-------------------------------------- SYNGNATHIFORMES [phylogeny after Longo et al. 2017]
--------------------------------------- Dactylopteridae
--------------------------------------- Pegasidae
--------------------------------------- Mullidae
--------------------------------------- CALLIONYMOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Callionymidae
---------------------------------------- Draconettidae [phylogenetic position after Betancur-R. et al. 2013]
--------------------------------------- Solenostomidae
--------------------------------------- Syngnathidae
--------------------------------------- Centriscidae
--------------------------------------- Aulostomidae
--------------------------------------- Fistulariidae
-------------------------------------- SCOMBRIFORMES
--------------------------------------- Chiasmodontidae
--------------------------------------- Tetragonuridae
--------------------------------------- Amarsipidae
--------------------------------------- Centrolophidae
--------------------------------------- Scombridae [monophyly after Miya et al. 2013 (as opposed to Betancur et al. 2013)]
--------------------------------------- Stromateidae
--------------------------------------- Scombrolabracidae
--------------------------------------- Icosteidae
--------------------------------------- Caristiidae
--------------------------------------- Bramidae
--------------------------------------- Arripidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Pomatomidae
--------------------------------------- Ariommatidae
--------------------------------------- Nomeidae
--------------------------------------- Trichiuridae
--------------------------------------- Zaphlegidae
--------------------------------------- Gempylidae
------------------------------------- CARANGIMORPHARIA
-------------------------------------- ANABANTIMORPHARIAE
--------------------------------------- SYNBRANCHIFORMES
---------------------------------------- MASTACEMBELOIDEI
----------------------------------------- Chaudhuriidae
----------------------------------------- Mastacembelidae
---------------------------------------- Synbranchidae
---------------------------------------- Indostomidae
--------------------------------------- ANABANTIFORMES
---------------------------------------- Channidae
---------------------------------------- NANDOIDEI
----------------------------------------- Pristolepididae
----------------------------------------- Badidae
----------------------------------------- Nandidae
---------------------------------------- ANABANTOIDEI
----------------------------------------- Anabantidae
----------------------------------------- Osphronemidae
----------------------------------------- Helostomatidae
-------------------------------------- CARANGIMORPHA
--------------------------------------- Nematistiidae
--------------------------------------- Sphyraenidae
--------------------------------------- Lactariidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Menidae
--------------------------------------- Polynemidae
--------------------------------------- Latidae
--------------------------------------- Centropomidae
--------------------------------------- ECHENEOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Ductoridae [phylogenetic position after Friedman et al. 2013]
---------------------------------------- Opisthomyzonidae [phylogenetic position after Friedman et al. 2013]
---------------------------------------- Echeneidae
---------------------------------------- Coryphaenidae
---------------------------------------- Rachycentridae
--------------------------------------- Carangidae
--------------------------------------- Leptobramidae
--------------------------------------- Toxotidae
--------------------------------------- XIPHIOIDEI [tentative phylogenetic position of extinct families after Fierstine 2006]
---------------------------------------- Blochiidae
---------------------------------------- Palaeorhynchidae
---------------------------------------- Xiphiidae
---------------------------------------- Hemingwayidae
---------------------------------------- Istiophoridae
--------------------------------------- PLEURONECTIFORMES [phylogeny after Betancur-R et al. 2013b]
---------------------------------------- Amphistiidae [phylogenetic position after Friedman 2008]
---------------------------------------- Psettodidae
---------------------------------------- PLEURONECTOIDEI
----------------------------------------- Citharidae
----------------------------------------- Paralichthodidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Chanet & Wagemans 2001]
----------------------------------------- Tephrinectidae [recognition and tentative phylogenetic position after Chanet & Wagemans 2001]
----------------------------------------- Achiridae
----------------------------------------- Samaridae
----------------------------------------- Poecilopsettidae
----------------------------------------- Cynoglossidae
----------------------------------------- Soleidae
----------------------------------------- Scophthalmidae
----------------------------------------- Achiropsettidae
----------------------------------------- Rhombosoleidae
----------------------------------------- Paralichthyidae
----------------------------------------- Bothidae
----------------------------------------- Pleuronectidae
-------------------------------------- OVALENTARIA [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
--------------------------------------- Pomacentridae
--------------------------------------- Congrogadidae [phylogenetic position and recognition after Wainwright et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------- Embiotocidae
--------------------------------------- Pseudochromidae
--------------------------------------- Mugilidae
--------------------------------------- Plesiopidae
--------------------------------------- Grammatidae
--------------------------------------- Ambassidae
--------------------------------------- Polycentridae
--------------------------------------- Opistognathidae
--------------------------------------- BLENNIFORMES
---------------------------------------- Gobiesocidae
---------------------------------------- Tripterygiidae
---------------------------------------- Blenniidae
---------------------------------------- Clinidae
---------------------------------------- Labrisomidae
---------------------------------------- Chaenopsidae
---------------------------------------- Dactyloscopidae
--------------------------------------- CICHLOMORPHAE
---------------------------------------- Cichlidae
---------------------------------------- Pholidichthyidae
--------------------------------------- ATHERINOMORPHA [phylogeny after Setiamarga et al. 2008; age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
---------------------------------------- ATHERINIFORMES [taxonomy after Bloom et al. 2012; phylogeny after Campanella et al. 2015]
----------------------------------------- Atherinopsidae
----------------------------------------- ATHERINOIDEI
------------------------------------------ Atherionidae
------------------------------------------ Bedotiidae
------------------------------------------ Atherinidae
------------------------------------------ Phallostethidae
------------------------------------------ Dentatherinidae
------------------------------------------ Isonidae
------------------------------------------ Melanotaeniidae
------------------------------------------ Telmatherinidae
------------------------------------------ Pseudomugilidae
---------------------------------------- CYPRINODONTEA
----------------------------------------- BELONIFORMES [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------------------------ Adrianichthyidae
------------------------------------------ BELONOIDEI [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------------------------- EXOCOETOIDEA
-------------------------------------------- Exocoetidae
-------------------------------------------- Hemiramphidae
------------------------------------------- Zenarchopteridae
------------------------------------------- Belonidae [included in Scomberesocidae after Betancur et al. 2013]
----------------------------------------- CYPRINODONTIFORMES [age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
------------------------------------------ APLOCHEILOIDEI
------------------------------------------- Aplocheilidae
------------------------------------------- Nothobranchiidae
------------------------------------------- Kenyaichthyidae [phylogenetic position after Altner & Reichenbacher 2015]
------------------------------------------- Rivulidae
------------------------------------------ CYPRINODONTOIDEI
------------------------------------------- Valenciidae
------------------------------------------- Profundulidae
------------------------------------------- Cyprinodontidae
------------------------------------------- Fundulidae
------------------------------------------- Goodeidae
------------------------------------------- POECILIOIDEA
-------------------------------------------- Anablepidae
-------------------------------------------- Poeciliidae
------------------------------------- PERCOMORPHARIA
-------------------------------------- Gerreidae
-------------------------------------- Champsodontidae
-------------------------------------- Scombropidae
-------------------------------------- Labridae [including Odacidae and Scaridae after Betancur et al. 2013]
-------------------------------------- Centrogenyidae
-------------------------------------- PARATRACHINOIDEI
--------------------------------------- Uranoscopidae
--------------------------------------- Ammodytidae
--------------------------------------- Pinguipedidae
--------------------------------------- Cheimarrichthyidae
--------------------------------------- Leptoscopidae
-------------------------------------- Epigonidae
-------------------------------------- Howellidae
-------------------------------------- Acropomatidae
-------------------------------------- Bathyclupeidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
-------------------------------------- Ostracoberycidae
-------------------------------------- Symphysanodontidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
-------------------------------------- Dinolestidae
-------------------------------------- Doederleiniidae [recognized after Betancur et al. 2013]
-------------------------------------- Lateolabracidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
-------------------------------------- Pentacerotidae
-------------------------------------- Banjosidae
-------------------------------------- HEMEROCOETOIDEI
--------------------------------------- Hemerocoetidae [recognition after Thacker et al. 2015]
--------------------------------------- Creedidae
-------------------------------------- PEMPHEROIDEA
--------------------------------------- Pempheridae
--------------------------------------- Glaucosomatidae
-------------------------------------- Polyprionidae 0.393939394 48.45454545
-------------------------------------- Malakichthyidae [recognized after Betancur et al. 2013]
-------------------------------------- CENTRARCHIFORMES [phylogeny after Near et al. 2011]
--------------------------------------- TERAPONTOIDEI
--------------------------------------- Girellidae
--------------------------------------- Dichistiidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Parascorpididae
--------------------------------------- Kuhliidae
--------------------------------------- Oplegnathidae
--------------------------------------- Kyphosidae
--------------------------------------- Terapontidae
--------------------------------------- Percalatidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Percichthyidae [including Perciliidae after Near et al. 2011]
--------------------------------------- CENTRARCHOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Sinipercidae
---------------------------------------- Enoplosidae
---------------------------------------- Elassomatidae
---------------------------------------- Centrarchidae
--------------------------------------- CIRRHITIOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Cirrhitidae
---------------------------------------- Cheilodactylidae
---------------------------------------- Aplodactylidae
---------------------------------------- Chironemidae
---------------------------------------- Latridae
-------------------------------------- SERRANIFORMES [phylogeny after Lautredou et al. 2013; age constrain after Azuma et al. 2008]
--------------------------------------- Percophidae
--------------------------------------- Serranidae [including Zalanthias and excluding Acanthistius (Serraniformes incertae sedis) after Smith & Craig 2007]
--------------------------------------- PERCOIDEI [phylogeny after Thacker et al. 2015]
---------------------------------------- Trachinidae
---------------------------------------- Niphonidae
---------------------------------------- Percidae
--------------------------------------- NOTOTHENIOIDEI [phylogeny after Near & Cheng 2008; age constrain after Near 2008]
---------------------------------------- Bovichtidae
---------------------------------------- PSEUDAPHRITIOIDEA [age constrain after Near 2008]
----------------------------------------- Pseudaphritidae
----------------------------------------- ELEGINOPSIOIDEA [age constrain after Near 2008]
------------------------------------------ Eleginopidae
------------------------------------------ CRYONOTOTHENIOIDEA [age constrain after Near 2008]
------------------------------------------- Nototheniidae
------------------------------------------- Artedidraconidae
------------------------------------------- Harpagiferidae
------------------------------------------- Bathydraconidae
------------------------------------------- Channichthyidae
--------------------------------------- Eschmeyeridae
--------------------------------------- Apistidae
--------------------------------------- Platycephalidae
--------------------------------------- Zanclorhynchidae
--------------------------------------- Perryenidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Honma et al. 2013]
--------------------------------------- Bembropidae [recognition after Thacker et al. 2015]
--------------------------------------- Congiopodidae
--------------------------------------- Neosebastidae
--------------------------------------- Plectrogenidae
--------------------------------------- BEMBROIDEI
---------------------------------------- Bembridae
---------------------------------------- Parabembridae
--------------------------------------- SCORPAENOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Scorpaenidae [including Caracanthidae, Setarchidae, Sebastidae and Ebibania after Lautredou et al. 2013]
---------------------------------------- Tetrarogidae
---------------------------------------- Gnathanacanthidae
---------------------------------------- Aploactinidae
---------------------------------------- Synanceiidae
---------------------------------------- Pataecidae
--------------------------------------- Hoplichthyidae
--------------------------------------- TRIGLIMORPHA
---------------------------------------- TRIGLIOIDEI
----------------------------------------- Peristediidae
----------------------------------------- Triglidae
---------------------------------------- COTTIMORPHA
----------------------------------------- Anoplopomatidae
----------------------------------------- Trichodontidae
----------------------------------------- ZOARCOIDEI
------------------------------------------ Eulophiidae [phylogenetic position and recognition after Kwun & Kim 2013]
------------------------------------------ Bathymasteridae
------------------------------------------ Zoarcidae
------------------------------------------ Stichaeidae
------------------------------------------ Cryptacanthodidae
------------------------------------------ Ptilichthyidae
------------------------------------------ Zaproridae
------------------------------------------ Scytalinidae
------------------------------------------ Neozoarcidae [phylogenetic position and recognition after Kwun & Kim 2013]
------------------------------------------ Pholidae
------------------------------------------ Anarhichadidae
----------------------------------------- GASTEROSTEOIDEI
------------------------------------------ Aulorhynchidae
------------------------------------------ Gasterosteidae
------------------------------------------ Hypoptychidae
----------------------------------------- Zaniolepididae
----------------------------------------- Hexagrammidae
----------------------------------------- COTTOIDEI
------------------------------------------ Hemitripteridae
------------------------------------------ CYCLOPTEROIDEA
------------------------------------------- Cyclopteridae
------------------------------------------- Liparidae
------------------------------------------ Jordaniidae [phylogenetic position and recognition after Smith & Busby 2014]
------------------------------------------ Rhamphocottidae
------------------------------------------ Ereuniidae
------------------------------------------ Cottidae [including Comephoridae, Abyssocottidae and Cottocomephoridae after Smith & Wheeler 2004]
------------------------------------------ Psychrolutidae [including Bathylutichthyidae after Smith & Busby 2014]
------------------------------------------ Scorpaenichthyidae [phylogenetic position and recognition after Smith & Busby 2014]
------------------------------------------ Agonidae [circumscription after Smith & Busby 2014]
-------------------------------------- Pomacanthidae
-------------------------------------- Malacanthidae
-------------------------------------- Monodactylidae
-------------------------------------- Emmelichthyidae
-------------------------------------- Sciaenidae
-------------------------------------- Sillaginidae
-------------------------------------- Callanthiidae
-------------------------------------- Moronidae
-------------------------------------- CHAETODONTIFORMES
--------------------------------------- Chaetodontidae
--------------------------------------- Leiognathidae
-------------------------------------- LOBOTIFORMES
--------------------------------------- Hapalogenyidae [phylogenetic position after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Lobotidae
--------------------------------------- Datnioididae
-------------------------------------- SPARIFORMES
--------------------------------------- Nemipteridae
--------------------------------------- Sparidae [including Centracanthidae after Sanciangco et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------- Lethrinidae
-------------------------------------- Ephippidae
-------------------------------------- Dinopercidae [phylogenetic positon after Mahon 2007]
-------------------------------------- Drepaneidae
-------------------------------------- Lutjanidae [including Caesionidae after Miller & Cribb 2007]
-------------------------------------- HAEMULOIDEA
--------------------------------------- Inermiidae
--------------------------------------- Haemulidae
-------------------------------------- ACANTHURIFORMES
--------------------------------------- LUVAROIDEA
---------------------------------------- Kushlukiidae
---------------------------------------- Luvaridae
--------------------------------------- ACANTHUROIDEA
---------------------------------------- Acanthuridae
---------------------------------------- ZANCLOIDEA
----------------------------------------- Massalongiidae [phylogenetic position after Tyler & Bannikov 2005]
----------------------------------------- Zanclidae
-------------------------------------- Siganidae
-------------------------------------- Scatophagidae
-------------------------------------- Priacanthidae
-------------------------------------- CEPOLOIDEA
--------------------------------------- Arambourgellidae
--------------------------------------- Cepolidae
-------------------------------------- Caproidae
-------------------------------------- LOPHIIFORMES [phylogeny after Miya et al. 2007]
--------------------------------------- Lophiidae
--------------------------------------- Ogcocephalidae
--------------------------------------- ANTENNARIOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Brachionichthyidae
---------------------------------------- Lophichthyidae
---------------------------------------- Antennariidae
---------------------------------------- Tetrabrachiidae
--------------------------------------- Chaunacidae
--------------------------------------- Caulophrynidae
--------------------------------------- CERATIOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Gigantactinidae
---------------------------------------- Centrophrynidae
---------------------------------------- Neoceratiidae
---------------------------------------- Linophrynidae
---------------------------------------- Thaumatichthyidae
---------------------------------------- Ceratiidae
---------------------------------------- Oneirodidae
---------------------------------------- Himantolophidae
---------------------------------------- Diceratiidae
---------------------------------------- Melanocetidae
-------------------------------------- Sorbinipercidae
-------------------------------------- Zorzinichthyidae
-------------------------------------- TETRAODONTIFORMES [phylogeny after Yamanoue et al. 2008; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Santini & Tyler 2003]
--------------------------------------- PLECTROCRETACICOIDEA
---------------------------------------- Cretatriacanthidae
---------------------------------------- Protriacanthidae
---------------------------------------- Plectrocretacidae
--------------------------------------- Eoplectidae
--------------------------------------- BOLCABALISTOIDEA
---------------------------------------- Eospinidae
---------------------------------------- Bolcabalistidae
--------------------------------------- TETRAODONTOIDEI
---------------------------------------- Diodontidae
---------------------------------------- Tetraodontidae
---------------------------------------- Triacanthidae
---------------------------------------- Molidae
---------------------------------------- BALISTOIDEA
----------------------------------------- Balistidae
----------------------------------------- Monacanthidae
--------------------------------------- TRIACANTHODOIDEA
---------------------------------------- Zignoichthyidae
---------------------------------------- Triodontidae
---------------------------------------- Triacanthodidae
---------------------------------------- Protobalistidae
---------------------------------------- Spinacanthidae
---------------------------------------- OSTRACIOIDEA
----------------------------------------- Ostraciidae
----------------------------------------- Aracanidae
----------------------- SARCOPTERYGII [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Irisarri et al. 2017; phylogeny of basal extinct families after Cloutier & Ahlberg 1996, Zhu et al. 2006 and Lu & Zhu 2009; age constrain after Hedges 2009b]
------------------------ Onychodontidae
------------------------ Youngolepidae
------------------------ POROLEPIFORMES
------------------------- Porolepidae
------------------------- Holoptychidae
------------------------ ACTINISTIA [phylogeny after Clement 2005 and Wendruff & Wilson 2012]
------------------------- Miguashaiidae
------------------------- Diplocercidae
------------------------- Euporosteidae
------------------------- Hadronectoridae
------------------------- Laugiidae
------------------------- Rhabdodermatidae
------------------------- COELACANTHIFORMES
-------------------------- Coelacanthidae
-------------------------- Whiteiidae
-------------------------- Rebellatricidae
-------------------------- LATIMERIOIDEI
--------------------------- Mawsoniidae
--------------------------- Latimeriidae
------------------------ DIPNOTETRAPODOMORPHA
------------------------- DIPNOI [phylogeny of basal extinct families after Clement 2009 and Schultze 2001; taxonomy of extant families after Froese & Pauly 2014]
-------------------------- Uranolophidae
-------------------------- Dipnorhynchidae
-------------------------- Dipteridae
-------------------------- Chirodipteridae
-------------------------- Fleurantiidae
-------------------------- Rhynchodipteridae
-------------------------- Sagenodontidae
-------------------------- Phaneropleuridae
-------------------------- Holodontidae
-------------------------- Conchopomidae
-------------------------- CERATODONTIMORPHA [phylogeny of extant families after Brinkmann et al. 2004]
--------------------------- Arganodontidae
--------------------------- CERATODONTIFORMES
---------------------------- Neoceratodontidae
---------------------------- Ceratodontidae
--------------------------- LEPIDOSIRENIFORMES
---------------------------- Protopteridae
---------------------------- Lepidosirenidae
------------------------- TETRAPODOMORPHA [phylogeny of basal families after Long et al. 2006]
-------------------------- Rhizodontidae
-------------------------- OSTEOLEPIDIDA
--------------------------- Gyroptychiidae
--------------------------- Canowindridae
--------------------------- Megalichthyidae
--------------------------- Osteolepididae
--------------------------- EOTETRAPODIFORMES [higher level phylogeny of extinct groups and basal families after Pardo et al. 2017b]
---------------------------- Tristichopteridae
---------------------------- ELPISTOSTEGALIA
----------------------------- Panderichthyidae
----------------------------- Elpistostegidae [phylogenetic position after Long et al. 2006]
----------------------------- STEGOCEPHALIA
------------------------------ Elginerpetontidae
------------------------------ Ichthyostegidae
------------------------------ Acanthostegidae
------------------------------ Tulerpetontidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------ HOLOSPONDYLI
------------------------------- Scincosauridae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------- Keraterpetontidae [=Diplocaulidae; phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------- Urocordylidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------- AISTOPODA [phylogeny after Anderson 2001]
-------------------------------- Lethiscidae
-------------------------------- Ophiderpetontidae
-------------------------------- Oestocephalidae
-------------------------------- Phlegethontiidae
------------------------------ Whatcheeriidae
------------------------------ Crassigyrinidae
------------------------------ Adelogyrnidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------ Colosteidae
------------------------------ BAPHETOIDEA
------------------------------- Spathicephalidae
------------------------------- Baphetidae
------------------------------ TETRAPODA [higher level phylogeny of extinct groups and basal families after Pardo et al. 2017b; age constrain after Hedges 2009b]
------------------------------- TEMNOSPONDYLI [phylogeny after Pardo et al. 2017a]
-------------------------------- DVINOSAURIA [phylogeny after Englehorn et al. 2008]
--------------------------------- Trimerorhachidae
--------------------------------- DVINOSAUROIDEA
---------------------------------- Eobrachyopidae
---------------------------------- Tupilakosauridae
---------------------------------- Dvinosauridae
-------------------------------- Dendrerpetontidae
-------------------------------- EDOPOIDEA
--------------------------------- Edopidae
--------------------------------- Cochleosauridae
-------------------------------- LISSAMPHIBIA [taxonomy of extant families after AmphibiaWeb 2016; phylogeny of basal, extinct groups after Pardo et al. 2017a]
--------------------------------- Peltobatrachidae
--------------------------------- Lapillopsidae
--------------------------------- Zatrachydidae
--------------------------------- Eryopidae [=Actinodontidae]
--------------------------------- STEREOSPONDYLOMORPHA
---------------------------------- Sclerocephalidae
---------------------------------- Intasuchidae [phylogenetic position after Pacheco et al. 2016]
---------------------------------- Konzhukoviidae [phylogenetic position after Pacheco et al. 2016]
---------------------------------- Archegosauridae [=Melosauridae]
---------------------------------- Australerpetontidae
---------------------------------- STEREOSPONDYLI
----------------------------------- Rhinesuchidae
----------------------------------- Lydekkerinidae
----------------------------------- Thoosuchidae [phylogenetic position after Damiani & Yates 2003]
----------------------------------- Benthosuchidae
----------------------------------- Rhytidosteidae [including Indobrachyopidae after Dias-da-Silva & Marsicano 2011]
----------------------------------- Trematosauridae
----------------------------------- Metoposauridae
----------------------------------- CAPITOSAURIA
------------------------------------ Sclerothoracidae [phylogenetic position after Schoch et al. 2007]
------------------------------------ Heylerosauridae [phylogenetic position after Steyer 2003]
------------------------------------ Mastodonsauridae [=Capitosauridae, Cyclotosauridae, Stenotosauridae]
----------------------------------- Laidleriidae
----------------------------------- Plagiosauridae
----------------------------------- Brachyopidae
----------------------------------- Chigutisauridae
----------------------------------- GYMNOPHIONA [phylogeny after Pyron & Wiens 2011; phylogenetic position among extinct temnospondyls after Pardo et al. 2017a]
------------------------------------ Eocaeciliaidae
------------------------------------ APODA [phylogeny after Kamei et al. 2012; node ages after Gower & Wilkinson 2009]
------------------------------------- Rhinatrematidae
------------------------------------- STEGOKROTAPHIA
-------------------------------------- Ichthyophiidae
-------------------------------------- TERESOMATA
--------------------------------------- Scolecomorphidae
--------------------------------------- Herpelidae
--------------------------------------- Chikilidae
--------------------------------------- Typhlonectidae
--------------------------------------- Caeciliidae
--------------------------------------- Indotyphlidae
--------------------------------------- Siphonopidae
--------------------------------------- Dermophiidae
--------------------------------- DISSOROPHOIDEA
---------------------------------- Trematopidae
---------------------------------- Dissorophidae
---------------------------------- Micromelerpetontidae
---------------------------------- Branchiosauridae
---------------------------------- Amphibamidae
---------------------------------- Karauridae
----------------------------------- BATRACHIA [phylogenetic position among extinct temnospondyls after Pardo et al. 2017a]
------------------------------------ Albanerpetontidae [phylogenetic position after Gardner 2001]
------------------------------------ CAUDATA [phylogeny after Shen et al. 2013; age constrains after Vieites et al. 2009]
------------------------------------- CRYPTOBRANCHOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Cryptobranchiidae
-------------------------------------- Hynobiidae
------------------------------------- DIADECTOSALAMANDROIDEI
-------------------------------------- Sirenidae
-------------------------------------- Batrachosauroididae
-------------------------------------- SALAMANDROIDEA
--------------------------------------- Salamandridae
--------------------------------------- Ambystomatidae
--------------------------------------- Dicamptodontidae
-------------------------------------- Proteidae
-------------------------------------- PLETHODONTOIDEA
--------------------------------------- Rhyacotritonidae
--------------------------------------- XENOSALAMANDROIDEI
---------------------------------------- Amphiumidae
---------------------------------------- Plethodontidae
------------------------------------ SALIENTA [phylogenetic position of extinct basal families after Borsuk-Bialynick& Evans 2002]
------------------------------------- Triadobatrachidae
------------------------------------- Czatkobatrachidae
------------------------------------- ANURA
-------------------------------------- Notobatrachidae
-------------------------------------- Vieraellidae
-------------------------------------- LEIOPELMATANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
--------------------------------------- AMPHICOELA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
---------------------------------------- Leiopelmatidae
---------------------------------------- Ascaphidae
--------------------------------------- LALAGOBATRACHIA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
---------------------------------------- COSTATA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
----------------------------------------- Bombinatoridae
----------------------------------------- Alytidae
---------------------------------------- XENOANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
----------------------------------------- Rhinophrynidae
----------------------------------------- PIPIMORPHA
------------------------------------------ Pipidae
------------------------------------------ Palaeobatrachidae
---------------------------------------- ACOSMANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
----------------------------------------- ANOMOCOELA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
------------------------------------------ Scaphiopodidae
------------------------------------------ Pelodytidae
------------------------------------------ PELOBATOIDEA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
------------------------------------------- Pelobatidae
------------------------------------------- Megophryidae
----------------------------------------- NEOBATRACHIA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
------------------------------------------ Heleophrynidae
------------------------------------------ PHTHANOBATRACHIA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
------------------------------------------- SOOGLOSSOIDEA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
-------------------------------------------- Nasikabatrachidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
-------------------------------------------- Sooglossidae
------------------------------------------- RANOIDEA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
-------------------------------------------- Microhylidae
-------------------------------------------- AFROBATRACHIA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
--------------------------------------------- XENOSYNEUNITANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
---------------------------------------------- Brevicipitidae
---------------------------------------------- Hemisotidae
--------------------------------------------- LAURENTOBATRACHIA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
---------------------------------------------- Arthroleptidae
---------------------------------------------- Hyperoliidae
-------------------------------------------- NATATANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
--------------------------------------------- Micrixalidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Ptychadenidae
--------------------------------------------- Odontobatrachidae
--------------------------------------------- Conrauidae
--------------------------------------------- Phrynobatrachidae
--------------------------------------------- Petropedetidae
--------------------------------------------- Pyxicephalidae
--------------------------------------------- Ranixalidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Dicroglossidae
--------------------------------------------- Nyctibatrachidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Ceratobatrachidae
--------------------------------------------- Ranidae
--------------------------------------------- Mantellidae
--------------------------------------------- Rhacophoridae
------------------------------------------- NOTOGAEANURA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
-------------------------------------------- Myobatrachidae
-------------------------------------------- Calyptocephalellidae
-------------------------------------------- HYLOIDEA [age constrain after Bossuyt & Roelants 2009]
--------------------------------------------- Ceuthomantidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Eleutherodactylidae
--------------------------------------------- Brachycephalidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Craugastoridae
--------------------------------------------- Strabomantidae
--------------------------------------------- Hemiphractidae
--------------------------------------------- Telmatobiidae
--------------------------------------------- Rhinodermatidae
--------------------------------------------- Batrachylidae
--------------------------------------------- Odontophrynidae
--------------------------------------------- Ceratophryidae
--------------------------------------------- Cycloramphidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Leptodactylidae
--------------------------------------------- Dendrobatidae
--------------------------------------------- Bufonidae
--------------------------------------------- Hylidae
--------------------------------------------- Hylodidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Alsodidae
--------------------------------------------- Allophrynidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
--------------------------------------------- Centrolenidae [phylogenetic position after Pyron & Wiens 2011]
------------------------------- REPTILIOMORPHA
-------------------------------- Caerorhachidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- CHRONIOSUCHIA [phylogenetic position after Buchwitz et al. 2012]
--------------------------------- Bystrowianidae
--------------------------------- Chroniosuchidae
-------------------------------- EMBOLOMERI [phylogeny after Ruta & Coates 2007]
--------------------------------- Eoherpetontidae
--------------------------------- Proterogyrinidae
--------------------------------- Eogyrinidae
--------------------------------- Anthracosauridae
--------------------------------- Archeriidae
-------------------------------- Gephyrostegidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- Utegeniidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- Discosauriscidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- Karpinskiosauridae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- Seymouriidae
-------------------------------- Kotlassiidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- Solenodonsauridae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
-------------------------------- COTYLOSAURIA
--------------------------------- Tseajaiidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
--------------------------------- Limnoscelidae
--------------------------------- Diadectidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
--------------------------------- AMNIOTA [age constrain after Shedlock & Edwards 2009]
---------------------------------- SYNAPSIDA [phylogeny of basal families after Benson 2012]
----------------------------------- Dimacrodontidae
----------------------------------- Varanopsidae
----------------------------------- Ophiacodontidae
----------------------------------- CASEASAURIA
------------------------------------ Caseidae
------------------------------------ Eothyrididae
----------------------------------- EUPELYCOSAURIA
------------------------------------ Edaphosauridae
------------------------------------ Haptodontidae
------------------------------------ Pantelosauridae
------------------------------------ SPHENACODONTIA
------------------------------------- Sphenacodontidae
------------------------------------- THERAPSIDA [phylogeny of basal families after Modesto & Rubidge 2000 and Kemp 2009]
-------------------------------------- Hipposauridae
-------------------------------------- Microuraniidae
-------------------------------------- Phthinosuchidae
-------------------------------------- Burnetiidae
-------------------------------------- Ictidorhinidae
-------------------------------------- Biarmosuchidae
-------------------------------------- Niaftasuchidae
-------------------------------------- Nikkasauridae
-------------------------------------- Eotitanosuchidae
-------------------------------------- EUTHERAPSIDA
--------------------------------------- DINOCEPHALIA
---------------------------------------- Rhopalodontidae
---------------------------------------- Estemmenosuchidae
---------------------------------------- Titanosuchidae
---------------------------------------- TAPINOCEPHALIA
----------------------------------------- Styracocephalidae
----------------------------------------- Tapinocephalidae
---------------------------------------- ANTEOSAURIA [phylogeny after Kammerer 2011]
----------------------------------------- Brithopodidae
----------------------------------------- Deuterosauridae
----------------------------------------- Anteosauridae
--------------------------------------- NEOTHERAPSIDA
---------------------------------------- Gorgonopsidae
---------------------------------------- ANOMODONTA [phylogeny after Botha-Brink & Angielczyk 2010; taxonomy after Kammerer & Angielczyk 2009]
----------------------------------------- Anomocephalidae
----------------------------------------- Venyukoviidae
----------------------------------------- DICYNODONTIA
------------------------------------------ Galeopsidae
------------------------------------------ Eodicynodontidae
------------------------------------------ DICYNODONTOIDEA
------------------------------------------- Pylaecephalidae
------------------------------------------- Cistecephalidae
------------------------------------------- Emydopidae
------------------------------------------- Endothiodontidae
------------------------------------------- Myosauridae
------------------------------------------- Kingoriidae
------------------------------------------- Pristerodontidae
------------------------------------------- Oudenodontidae
------------------------------------------- Rhachiocephalidae
------------------------------------------- Geikiidae
------------------------------------------- Lystrosauridae
------------------------------------------- Dicynodontidae
------------------------------------------- KANNEMEYERiIFORMES
-------------------------------------------- Stahleckeriidae
-------------------------------------------- Shansiodontidae
-------------------------------------------- Kannemeyeriidae
-------------------------------------------- Dinodontosauridae
---------------------------------------- THERIODONTA
----------------------------------------- Scylacosuchidae
----------------------------------------- Nanictidopidae
----------------------------------------- Trochosuchidae
----------------------------------------- PRISTEROSAURIA
------------------------------------------ Scylacosauridae
------------------------------------------ Pristerognathidae
----------------------------------------- Kotelcephalonidae
----------------------------------------- Perplexisauridae
----------------------------------------- Lycosuchidae
----------------------------------------- EUTHEROCEPHALIA
------------------------------------------ THEROCEPHALIA [phylogeny after Huttenlocker 2009, Huttenlocker et al. 2011 and Sigurdsen et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------- Moschorhinidae
------------------------------------------- SCALOPOSAURIA
-------------------------------------------- Scaloposauridae
-------------------------------------------- BAUROIDEA
--------------------------------------------- Karenitidae
--------------------------------------------- Nothogomphodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Bauridae
--------------------------------------------- Lycideopidae
--------------------------------------------- Ericiolacertidae
--------------------------------------------- Ictidosuchopsidae
--------------------------------------------- Regisauridae
------------------------------------------ Whaitsiidae
------------------------------------------ CYNODONTIA [phylogeny of basal families after Botha-Brink et al. 2007 and Martinez et al. 2013]
------------------------------------------- Charassognathidae
------------------------------------------- Procynosuchidae
------------------------------------------- Dviniidae
------------------------------------------- EPICYNODONTIA [phylogeny of basal families after Martinelli et al. 2005, Sidor & Hancox 2006, Oliveira 2006 and Ruta et al. 2013]
-------------------------------------------- Galesauridae
-------------------------------------------- Thrinaxodontidae
-------------------------------------------- EUDICYNODONTIA
--------------------------------------------- Cynognathidae
--------------------------------------------- Lumkuiidae
--------------------------------------------- Ecteniniidae
--------------------------------------------- Chiniquodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Probainognathidae
--------------------------------------------- Riograndidae
--------------------------------------------- Therioherpetidae
--------------------------------------------- Dromatheriidae
--------------------------------------------- Trithelodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Brasilodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Chronoperatidae
--------------------------------------------- TRITYLODONTOIDEA
---------------------------------------------- Diademodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Tritylodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Traversodontidae
---------------------------------------------- Trirachodontidae
--------------------------------------------- MAMMALIAFORMES [phylogeny of basal extinct families after Pfretzschner et al. 2005, Sigogneau-Russell 2003, Ji et al. 2006, Luo et al. 2001a, Luo et al. 2001b, Zheng et al. 2013 and Luo et al. 2002]
---------------------------------------------- Sinoconodontidae
---------------------------------------------- Megazostrodontidae
---------------------------------------------- Morganucodontidae
---------------------------------------------- Docodontidae
---------------------------------------------- MAMMALIA [higher level phylogeny after Prasad et al. 2008; age constrain after Woodburne et al. 2003; phylogeny of basal extinct families after Bi et al. 2014, Gao et al. 2009, Rougier et al. 2007 and Luo & Wible 2007; taxonomy of extant families after Zhang et al. 2011 with exceptions as specified below]
----------------------------------------------- Kuehneotheriidae
----------------------------------------------- Fruitafossoridae
----------------------------------------------- Jeholodentidae
----------------------------------------------- Sudamericidae
----------------------------------------------- Triconodontidae
----------------------------------------------- Amphidontidae
----------------------------------------------- Kollikodontidae
----------------------------------------------- Spalacotheriidae
----------------------------------------------- Zhangheotheriidae
----------------------------------------------- Repenomamidae
----------------------------------------------- Gobiconodontidae
----------------------------------------------- HARAMIYIDA [phylogeny after Zhou et al. 2013; phylogenetic position after Zheng et al. 2013]
------------------------------------------------ Eleutherodontidae
------------------------------------------------ Haramiyaviidae
------------------------------------------------ Haramiyidae
----------------------------------------------- YINOTHERIA
------------------------------------------------ Shuotheriidae
------------------------------------------------ AUSTRALOSPHENIDA
------------------------------------------------- Henosferidae
------------------------------------------------- Ausktribosphenidae
------------------------------------------------- MONOTREMATA
-------------------------------------------------- Tachyglossidae
-------------------------------------------------- PLATYPODA
--------------------------------------------------- Steropodontidae
--------------------------------------------------- Ornithorhynchidae
----------------------------------------------- MULTITUBERCULATA
------------------------------------------------ Glirodontidae
------------------------------------------------ Zofiabaataridae
------------------------------------------------ Paulchoffatiidae
------------------------------------------------ CIMOLODONTA
------------------------------------------------- Kogaionidae
------------------------------------------------- Taeniolabididae
------------------------------------------------- DJADOCHTATHERIA
-------------------------------------------------- Sloanbaataridae
-------------------------------------------------- Djadochtatheriidae
------------------------------------------------- PTILODONTOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------- Ptilodontidae
-------------------------------------------------- Neoplagiaulacidae
----------------------------------------------- CLADOTHERIA [phylogeny of basal families after Chimento et al. 2012, Rougier et al. 2012 and Averianov et al. 2013]
------------------------------------------------ Amphitheriidae
------------------------------------------------ Vincelestidae
------------------------------------------------ Paurodontidae
------------------------------------------------ Henkelotheriidae
------------------------------------------------ Dryolestidae
------------------------------------------------ TRIBOSPHENIDA
------------------------------------------------- Aegialodontidae
------------------------------------------------- THERIA
-------------------------------------------------- Necrolestidae
-------------------------------------------------- METATHERIA
--------------------------------------------------- Deltatheridiidae [phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------------------- Stagodontidae [phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------------------- Alphadontidae [phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
--------------------------------------------------- SPARASSODONTA [phylogeny after Suárez et al. 2015; phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
---------------------------------------------------- Hondadelphidae
---------------------------------------------------- Mayulestidae [phylogenetic position after de Muizon 1998]
---------------------------------------------------- Hathliacynidae
---------------------------------------------------- BORHYAENOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------- Proborhyaenidae
----------------------------------------------------- Prothylacinidae
----------------------------------------------------- Borhyaenidae
----------------------------------------------------- Thylacosmilidae
--------------------------------------------------- MARSUPIALIA [phylogeny of extant families after Meredith et al. 2008]
---------------------------------------------------- Herpetotheriidae [phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
---------------------------------------------------- Peradectidae [phylogenetic position after Wilson et al. 2016]
---------------------------------------------------- Didelphidae
---------------------------------------------------- PAUCITUBERCULATA [phylogeny after Flynn & Wyss 1999]
----------------------------------------------------- Caenolestidae
----------------------------------------------------- POLYDOLOPIMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------ Protodidelphidae
------------------------------------------------------ POLYDOLOPOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------- Polydolopidae
------------------------------------------------------- Bonapartheriidae
------------------------------------------------------ SIMPSONITHERIA
------------------------------------------------------- Argyrolagidae
------------------------------------------------------- Groeberiidae
---------------------------------------------------- AUSTRALIDELPHIA
----------------------------------------------------- Microbiotheriidae
----------------------------------------------------- Yingabalanaridae
----------------------------------------------------- EUAUSTRALIDELPHIA
------------------------------------------------------ Yalkaparidontidae
------------------------------------------------------ Notoryctidae
------------------------------------------------------ DASYUROMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------- Myrmecobiidae
------------------------------------------------------- Dasyuridae
------------------------------------------------------- Thylacinidae
------------------------------------------------------ PERAMELIA
------------------------------------------------------- Yaralidae [phylogenetic position after Muirhead 2000]
------------------------------------------------------- PERAMELOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------- Peramelidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Thylacomyidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Chaeropodidae
------------------------------------------------------ DIPROTODONTIA [phylogeny of extant families after Meredith et al. 2009; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Wroe 2002]
------------------------------------------------------- VOMBATIFORMES
-------------------------------------------------------- Phascolarctidae
-------------------------------------------------------- VOMBATOMORPHA [phylogeny after Long et al. 2002]
--------------------------------------------------------- Thylacoleonidae
--------------------------------------------------------- VOMBATOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------- Vombatidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Wynyardiidae
---------------------------------------------------------- DIPROTODONTOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------- Palorchestidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Diprotodontidae
------------------------------------------------------- PHALANGERIDA
-------------------------------------------------------- Acrobatidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Tarsipedidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Petauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Pseudocheiridae
-------------------------------------------------------- MACROPODIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------- Hypsiprymnodontidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Potoridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Macropodidae
-------------------------------------------------------- PHALANGERIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------- Burramyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Phalangeridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Ektopodontidae [phylogenetic position after Crosby & Archer 2000]
-------------------------------------------------- EUTHERIA [age constrain after Woodburne et al. 2003; phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Hu et al. 2009 and Rook & Hunter 2013]
--------------------------------------------------- Zalambdalestidae
--------------------------------------------------- PLACENTALIA [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Morgan et al. 2013 and Song et al. 2012; phylogenetic position of main extinct groups after O'Leary et al. 2013; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
---------------------------------------------------- Asioryctidae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
---------------------------------------------------- Kennalestidae
---------------------------------------------------- Ernanodontidae
---------------------------------------------------- Apatemyidae
---------------------------------------------------- Periptychidae
---------------------------------------------------- Sparnotheriodontidae
---------------------------------------------------- Oxyclaenidae
---------------------------------------------------- Palaeoryctidae
---------------------------------------------------- Didolodontidae
---------------------------------------------------- Pantolestidae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
---------------------------------------------------- Paroxyclaenidae
---------------------------------------------------- Metacheiromyidae
---------------------------------------------------- Pentacodontidae
---------------------------------------------------- ASTRAPOTHERIA
----------------------------------------------------- Astrapotheriidae
----------------------------------------------------- Trigonostylopidae
---------------------------------------------------- Stylinodontidae
---------------------------------------------------- LEPTICTIIDA
----------------------------------------------------- Pseudorhyncocyonidae
----------------------------------------------------- Leptictiidae
---------------------------------------------------- XENUNGULATA
----------------------------------------------------- Carodniidae
----------------------------------------------------- PYROTHERIA
------------------------------------------------------ Colombitheriidae
------------------------------------------------------ Pyrotheriidae
---------------------------------------------------- ATLANTOGENATA [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- XENARTHRA [phylogeny of extant families after Delsuc et al. 2002]
------------------------------------------------------ CINGULATA
------------------------------------------------------- Peltephilidae
------------------------------------------------------- Pampatheriidae
------------------------------------------------------- Dasypodidae [including Glyptodontidae after Delsuc et al. 2016]
------------------------------------------------------ PILOSA
------------------------------------------------------- VERMILINGUA
-------------------------------------------------------- Cyclopedidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Myrmecophagidae
------------------------------------------------------- PHYLLOPHAGA [phylogeny after Greenwood et al. 2001]
-------------------------------------------------------- Megalonychidae
-------------------------------------------------------- MYLODONTOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------- Scelidotheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Mylodontidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Bradypodidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Megatheriidae [phylogenetic position after Gaudin 2004]
-------------------------------------------------------- Nothrotheriidae
----------------------------------------------------- AFROTHERIA [higher level phylogeny after Nishihara et al. 2005]
------------------------------------------------------ Geolabididae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
------------------------------------------------------ AFROINSECTIPHILIA [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- Amphilemuridae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- Macroscelididae
------------------------------------------------------- Orycteropidae
------------------------------------------------------- PTOLEMAIIDA [phylogenetic position after Seiffert 2007]
-------------------------------------------------------- Ptolemaiidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Kelbidae [phylogenetic position after Cote et al. 2007]
------------------------------------------------------- AFROSORICIDA [age constrain after Poux 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------- Chrysochloridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Tenrecidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Plesiorycteropodidae [phylogenetic position after Buckley 2013]
------------------------------------------------------ PAENUNGULATA [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- DINOCERATA [phylogenetic position after Shoshani 1986]
-------------------------------------------------------- Gobiatheriidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Uintatheriidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Prodinoceratidae
------------------------------------------------------- TETHYTHERIA
-------------------------------------------------------- HYRACOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------- Procaviidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Pliohyracidae
-------------------------------------------------------- EMBRITHOPODA
--------------------------------------------------------- Arsinoitheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Palaeoamasiidae
-------------------------------------------------------- SIRENIA [phylogeny after Savage et al. 1994]
--------------------------------------------------------- Prorastomidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Protosirenidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Trichechidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Dugongidae
-------------------------------------------------------- PROBOSCIDEA [phylogeny after Delmer 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- Moeritheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Barytheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Phosphatheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Numidotheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Deinotheriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- ELEPHANTIFORMES
---------------------------------------------------------- Palaeomastodontidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Phiomiidae
---------------------------------------------------------- ELEPHANTOIDEA [age constrain after Rohland et al. 2010]
----------------------------------------------------------- Mammutidae
----------------------------------------------------------- EUELEPHANTOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Amebelodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Gomphotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Tetralophodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Stegodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Elephantidae
---------------------------------------------------- BOREOEUTHERIA [higher level phylogeny after Nery et al. 2011; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- EUARCHONTOGLIRES [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------ ARCHONTA [higher level phylogeny after Janecka et al. 2007; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- SCANDENTIA [age constrain after Roberts et al. 2011]
-------------------------------------------------------- Ptilocercidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Tupaiidae
------------------------------------------------------- PRIMATOMORPHA [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Ni et al. 2013; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------- Toliapinidae
-------------------------------------------------------- DERMOPTERA
--------------------------------------------------------- Plagiomenidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Cynocephalidae
-------------------------------------------------------- PLESIADAPIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------- Purgatoriidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Paromomyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Picrodontidae [phylogenetic position after Scott & Fox 2005]
--------------------------------------------------------- Plesiadapidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Carpolestidae
-------------------------------------------------------- EUPRIMATES [phylogeny after Perelman et al. 2011; age constrain after Steiper & Young 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- STREPSIRRHINI [age constrain after Steiper & Young 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- ADAPIFORMES
----------------------------------------------------------- Azibiidae [phylogenetic position after Tabuce et al. 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------- Notharctidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Adapidae
---------------------------------------------------------- LEMURIFORMES [phylogeny and age constrains after Herrera & Dávalos 2016]
----------------------------------------------------------- LORISOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Lorisidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Galagonidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Daubentoniidae
----------------------------------------------------------- LEMUROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Megaladapidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Lepilemuridae
------------------------------------------------------------ Cheirogaleidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Lemuridae
------------------------------------------------------------ INDRIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------- Archaeolemuridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Indriidae [including Palaeopropithecidae after Herrera & Dávalos 2016]
--------------------------------------------------------- HAPLORRHINI [age constrain after Steiper & Young 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- TARSIIFORMES
----------------------------------------------------------- Archicebidae
----------------------------------------------------------- TARSIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Omomyidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Tarsiidae
---------------------------------------------------------- ANTHROPOIDEA [age constrain of crown group after Steiper & Young 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------- Eosimiidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Afrotarsiidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Amphipithecidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Parapithecidae
----------------------------------------------------------- PLATYRRHINI [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Marivaux et al. 2016; age constrain after Steiper & Young 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------ Branisellidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Homunculidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Xenotrichidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Pitheciidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Atelidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Cebidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Aotidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Callitrichidae [inclusion after Perelman et al. 2011]
----------------------------------------------------------- CATARRHINI [age constrain of crown group after Steiper & Young 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------ Oligopithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Propliopithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Pliopithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Saadaniidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Victoriapithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Cercopithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------ HOMINOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------- Dendropithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Proconsulidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Griphopithecidae
------------------------------------------------------------- EUHOMINOIDEA [age constrain after Steiper & Young 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hylobatidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hominidae
------------------------------------------------------ GLIRES [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- DUPLICIDENTATA
-------------------------------------------------------- Mimotonidae [phylogenetic position after McKenna et al. 2006]
-------------------------------------------------------- LAGOMORPHA [age constrain after Matthee 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- Leporidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Ochotonidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Prolagidae
------------------------------------------------------- SIMPLICIDENTATA
-------------------------------------------------------- Eurymylidae [phylogenetic position after McKenna et al. 2006]
-------------------------------------------------------- RODENTIA [phylogeny after Fabre et al. 2012; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Marivaux & Welcomme 2003]
--------------------------------------------------------- Gliridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Ischyromyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Reithroparamyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Theridomyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- SCIUROIDEA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Sciuridae
---------------------------------------------------------- APLODONTOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------- Aplodontiidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Mylagaulidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Sciuravidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Protoptychidae
--------------------------------------------------------- CASTORIMORPHA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Castoridae
---------------------------------------------------------- GEOMORPHA
----------------------------------------------------------- Eomyidae
----------------------------------------------------------- GEOMYOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Heteromyidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Geomyidae
--------------------------------------------------------- ANOMALUROMORPHA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Pedetidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Anomaluridae
--------------------------------------------------------- MYODONTA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- DIPODOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------- Armintomyidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Dipodidae
---------------------------------------------------------- MUROIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------- Platacanthomyidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Spalacidae
----------------------------------------------------------- EUMUROIDA
------------------------------------------------------------ Calomyscidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Nesomyidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Cricetidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Muridae
--------------------------------------------------------- CTENOHYSTRICA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- CTENODACTYLOIDEA [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------- Ctenodactylidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Diatomyidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Chapattimyidae
---------------------------------------------------------- HYSTRICOGNATHIFORMES
----------------------------------------------------------- Tsaganomyidae
----------------------------------------------------------- HYSTRICOGNATHI [age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------ Hystricidae
------------------------------------------------------------ CAVIOMORPHA [phylogeny after Upham & Patterson 2012; age constrain after Honeycutt 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------- PHIOMORPHA [age constrains after Honeycutt 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Bathyergidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- THRYONOMYOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------- Thryonomyidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Petromuridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Eocardiidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Erethizontidae
------------------------------------------------------------- CAVIOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Dasyproctidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Caviidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Cuniculidae
------------------------------------------------------------- CINCHILLOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Chinchillidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Dinomyidae
------------------------------------------------------------- OCTODONTOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Neoepiblemidae [phylogenetic position after Vucetich & Kramarz 2003]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Abrocomidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Octodontidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Ctenomyidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Echimyidae [including Myocastoridae after Upham & Patterson 2012]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Capromyidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Heptaxodontidae
----------------------------------------------------- Wangliidae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- Esthonychidae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- PANTODONTA
------------------------------------------------------ Coryphodontidae
------------------------------------------------------ PANTOLAMBDOIDEA [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- Pantolambdidae
------------------------------------------------------- Titanoideidae
------------------------------------------------------- Barylambdidae
------------------------------------------------------- Pantolambdodontidae
----------------------------------------------------- LAURASIATHERIA [higher level phylogeny after Zhou et al. 2011 and Tsagkogeorga et al. 2013; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------ Arctocyonidae
------------------------------------------------------ Cimolestidae
------------------------------------------------------ EULIPOTYPHLA [node ages after Douady et al. 2002]
------------------------------------------------------- Nesophontidae [phylogenetic position after Brace et al. 2016]
------------------------------------------------------- Solenodontidae
------------------------------------------------------- Talpidae
------------------------------------------------------- Erinaceidae
------------------------------------------------------- Soricidae
------------------------------------------------------ SCROTIFERA [higher level phylogeny after Hallström et al. 2011; age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
------------------------------------------------------- CHIROPTERA [phykogeny of extant groups after Teeling et al. 2005; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Gunnell et al. 2003; age constrain of crown group after Teeling 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------- Onychonycteridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Icaronycteridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Archaeonycteridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Hassianycterididae
-------------------------------------------------------- Palaeochiropterygidae
-------------------------------------------------------- YINOCHIROPTERA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- Pteropodidae
--------------------------------------------------------- RHINOLOPHOIDEA [age constrain after Teeling et al. 2005]
---------------------------------------------------------- Hipposideridae
---------------------------------------------------------- Rhinolophidae
--------------------------------------------------------- RHINOPOMATOIDEA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Rhinopomatidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Megadermatidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Craseonycteridae
-------------------------------------------------------- YANGOCHIROPTERA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- EMBALLONUROIDEA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Emballonuridae
---------------------------------------------------------- Nycteridae
--------------------------------------------------------- VESPERTILIONOIDEA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Philisidae [phylogenetic position of Philisiidae]
---------------------------------------------------------- Natalidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Molossidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Vespertilionidae
--------------------------------------------------------- NOCTILIONOIDEA [age constrain after Teeling 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Myzopodidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Mystacinidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Mormoopidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Phyllostomidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Thyropteridae
---------------------------------------------------------- Furipteridae
---------------------------------------------------------- Noctilionidae
------------------------------------------------------- FEREUUNGULATA
-------------------------------------------------------- Triisodontidae [phylogenetic position after Zack 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------- MESONYCHIA
--------------------------------------------------------- Mesonychidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Hapalodectidae
-------------------------------------------------------- FERAE [age constrain after Murphy & Eizirik 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------- PHOLIDOTA [phylogeny after Baudin et al. 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Eurotamanduidae
---------------------------------------------------------- EUPHOLIDOTA
----------------------------------------------------------- Eomanidae
----------------------------------------------------------- MANOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Patriomanidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Manidae
--------------------------------------------------------- CREODONTA [phylogenetic position after Spaulding et al. 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------- Hyaenodontidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Oxyaenidae
--------------------------------------------------------- CARNIVORAMORPHA [phylogeny of basal families after Spaulding et al. 2010 and Wang & Zhan 2015]
---------------------------------------------------------- Viverravidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Miacidae
---------------------------------------------------------- CARNIVORA [phylogeny after Nyakatura & Bininda-Emonds 2012]
----------------------------------------------------------- FELIFORMIA
------------------------------------------------------------ Nimravidae [phylogenetic position after Wyss & Flynn 1993]
------------------------------------------------------------ FELOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------- Nandiniidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Prionodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Barbourofelidae [phylogenetic position after Wyss & Flynn 1993]
------------------------------------------------------------- Felidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Viverridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Eupleridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Herpestidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Percrocutidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Werdelin & Solounias 1991]
------------------------------------------------------------- Hyaenidae
----------------------------------------------------------- CANIFORMIA
------------------------------------------------------------ Canidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Amphicyonidae [phylogenetic position after Wyss & Flynn 1993]
------------------------------------------------------------ ARCTOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------- URSOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Ursidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hemicyonidae [phylogenetic position after Wyss & Flynn 1993]
------------------------------------------------------------- Semantoridae [tentative phylogenetic position after Shannon 1987]
------------------------------------------------------------- MUSTELOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Mephitidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Ailuridae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Mustelidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Procyonidae
------------------------------------------------------------- PINNIPEDIMORPHA [phylogenetic position of extinct families after Boessenecker & Churchill 2015]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Enaliarctidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- PINNIPEDIA
--------------------------------------------------------------- PHOCOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------------- Desmatophocidae
---------------------------------------------------------------- Phocidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- OTARIOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------------- Otariidae
---------------------------------------------------------------- Odobenidae
-------------------------------------------------------- EUUNGULATA
--------------------------------------------------------- Phenacodontidae [phylogenetic position after Cooper et al. 2014]
--------------------------------------------------------- Hyopsodontidae
--------------------------------------------------------- DESMOSTYLIA [phylogeny after Domning 1996; phylogenetic position after Cooper et al. 2014]
---------------------------------------------------------- Behemotopsidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Desmostylidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Palaeoparadoxidae
--------------------------------------------------------- PANPERISSODACTYLA
---------------------------------------------------------- Cambaytheriidae [phylogenetic position after Cooper et al. 2014]
---------------------------------------------------------- MERIDIUNGULATA [phylogeny after Horovitz 2004; phylogenetic position after Welker et al. 2015]
----------------------------------------------------------- LITOPTERNA
------------------------------------------------------------ Proterotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Macraucheniidae
----------------------------------------------------------- NOTOUNGULATA
------------------------------------------------------------ Notostylopidae
------------------------------------------------------------ TYPOTHERIA [phylogeny after Reguero et al. 2003]
------------------------------------------------------------- Interatheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------- HEGETOTHEROIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Archaeohyracidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Mesotheriidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hegetotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ TOXODONTIA [phylogeny after Shockey 1997]
------------------------------------------------------------- Homalodotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Isotemnidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Leontiniidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Notohippidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Toxodontidae
---------------------------------------------------------- PERISSODACTYLA [phylogeny of extant families after Price & Bininda-Emonds 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------- HIPPOMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------------ Pachynolophidae [phylogenetic position after Froelich 1999]
------------------------------------------------------------ EQUOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------- Palaeotheriidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------------------------- Equidae
----------------------------------------------------------- TAPIROMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------------ Isectolophidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------------------------ BRONTOTHERIA [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------------------------- Lambdotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Brontotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ CHALICOTHERIOIDEA [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------------------------- Lophiodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Chalicotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ CERATOMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------------- RHINOCEROTOIDEA [phylogeny and phylogenetic position among extinct groups after Froelich 1999]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Amynodontidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- RHINOCEROTIDA
--------------------------------------------------------------- Hyracodontidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Rhinocerotidae
------------------------------------------------------------- TAPIROIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Heptodontidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hyrachyidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Helaletidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Lophialetidae [phylognetic position after Rose et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Tapiridae
--------------------------------------------------------- CETARTIODACTYLA [phylogeny of extant families after Zhou et al. 2011; phylogenetic position of extinct families after O'Leary & Gatesy 2008]
---------------------------------------------------------- Dichobunidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Helohyidae
---------------------------------------------------------- Choeropotamidae
---------------------------------------------------------- CAMELIDAMORPHA
----------------------------------------------------------- Agriochoeridae
----------------------------------------------------------- Poebrotheriidae [including Leptotragulus after Geisler et al. 2007]
----------------------------------------------------------- Camelidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Xiphodontidae [phylogenetic position after Geisler et al. 2007]
----------------------------------------------------------- Oreodontidae
----------------------------------------------------------- ANOPLOTHERIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Anoplotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Cainotheriidae
---------------------------------------------------------- ARTIOFABULA
----------------------------------------------------------- SUOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------ Suidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Tayassuidae
----------------------------------------------------------- CETERUMINANTIA
------------------------------------------------------------ Oromerycidae [phylogenetic position after Geisler et al. 2007]
------------------------------------------------------------ RUMINANTIAMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------------- Protoceratidae
------------------------------------------------------------- RUMINANTIA [phylogeny of extant families after Decker et al. 2009; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Vislobokova & Daxner-Höck 2002 and Janis 1987]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Hypertragulidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Tragulidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Bachitheriidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Archaeomerycidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Lophiomerycidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- PECORA
--------------------------------------------------------------- Gelocidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Antilocapridae
--------------------------------------------------------------- GIRAFFOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------------- Canthumerycidae
---------------------------------------------------------------- Climacoceratidae
---------------------------------------------------------------- Giraffidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Leptomerycidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Bovidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Moschidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Palaeomerycidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Dromomerycidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Hoplitomerycidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Cervidae
------------------------------------------------------------ CETANCODONTA
------------------------------------------------------------- Diacodexeidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Entelodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Andrewsarchidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Anthracotheriidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Cebochoeridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Raoellidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Hippopotamidae
------------------------------------------------------------- CETACEA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Pakicetidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Ambulocetidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Remingtonocetidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Protocetidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- PELAGICETI
--------------------------------------------------------------- Basilosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Dorudontidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- AUTOCETA [phylogeny of extant families after McGowen et al. 2009; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Geisler et al. 2011]
---------------------------------------------------------------- MYSTICETI [phylogeny after Marx & Fordyce 2015]
----------------------------------------------------------------- Mystacodontidae [phylogenetic position and age range after Lambert et al. 2017]
----------------------------------------------------------------- Aetiocetidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Mammalodontidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Llanocetidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- CHAEOMYSTICETI
------------------------------------------------------------------ Eomysticetidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ BALAENOMORPHA
------------------------------------------------------------------- Balaenidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- PLICOGULAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Cetotheriidae [including Neobalaenidae after Fordyce & Marx 2013]
-------------------------------------------------------------------- BALAENOPTEROIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Pelocetidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Diorocetidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Aglaocetidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Balaenopteridae [including Escrhichtiidae after Hassanin et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------------------------------- ODONTOCETI [phylogenetic position of basal extinct families after Sanders & Geisler 2015]
----------------------------------------------------------------- Mirocetidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Xenorophidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Simocetidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Waipatiidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Squalodontidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Prosqualodontidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- PHYSETEROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------ Physeteridae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Kogiidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Rhabdosteidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- PLATANISTOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------ Dalpiazinidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Allodelphinidae [phylogenetic position after Boersma & Pyenson 2016]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Squalodelphinidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Platanistidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- Ziphiidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- DELPHINIDA
------------------------------------------------------------------ Acrodelphinidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Lipotidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ INIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------- Pontoporiidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- Iniidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ DELPHINOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------- Kentriodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- Delphinidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- Phocoenidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- Odobenocetopsidae [phylogenetic position after de Muizon 1993]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Monodontidae
---------------------------------- SAUROPSIDA [higher level phylogeny of extinct groups after Müller & Reisz 2006]
----------------------------------- Mesosauridae
----------------------------------- PARAREPTILIA [phylogeny after Modesto 2000, Tsuji & Müller 2009 and Modesto et al. 2009]
------------------------------------ Millerettidae
------------------------------------ ANKYRAMORPHA
------------------------------------- Bolosauridae
------------------------------------- Nycteroleteridae [=Tokosauridae]
------------------------------------- Nyctiphruretidae
------------------------------------- Pareiasauridae
------------------------------------- PROCOLOPHONOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Owenettidae
-------------------------------------- Procolophonidae
------------------------------------- LANTHANOSUCHOIDEA
-------------------------------------- Acleistorhinidae
-------------------------------------- Lanthaniscidae
-------------------------------------- Lanthanosuchidae
----------------------------------- EUREPTILIA
------------------------------------ Captorhinidae
------------------------------------ MICROSAURIA
------------------------------------- Tuditanidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------------- Pantylidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------------- Hapsidopareiontidae [phylogenetic position after Ruta & Coates 2007]
------------------------------------- Ostodolepididae [phylogenetic position after Pardo et al. 2017b]
------------------------------------- Goniorhynchidae [phylogenetic position after Pardo et al. 2017b]
------------------------------------- Cocytinidae [=Lysorophidae; phylogenetic position after Pardo et al. 2017b]
------------------------------------- Gymnarthridae [phylogenetic position after Pardo et al. 2017b]
------------------------------------ MICROBRACHIOMORPHA [phylogeny after Ruta et al. 2007; phylogenetic position after Pardo et al. 2017b]
------------------------------------- Brachystelechidae
------------------------------------- Odonterpetontidae
------------------------------------- Microbrachidae
------------------------------------- Hyloplesiontidae
------------------------------------ ROMERIIDA
------------------------------------- Hylonomidae
------------------------------------- Protorothyrididae
------------------------------------- DIAPSIDA [phylogeny of basal families after Bickelmann et al. 2009]
-------------------------------------- ARAEOSCELIDA
--------------------------------------- Petrolacosauridae
--------------------------------------- Araeoscelidae
-------------------------------------- NEODIAPSIDA
--------------------------------------- Claudiosauridae
--------------------------------------- Younginidae
--------------------------------------- Tangasauridae
--------------------------------------- Coelurosauravidae
--------------------------------------- Longisquamidae
--------------------------------------- SAURIA [higher level phylogeny of extant groups after Chiari et al. 2012; higher level phylogeny of extinct groups after Neenan et al. 2013; age constrain after Shedlock & Edwards 2009]
---------------------------------------- LEPIDOSAUROMORPHA
----------------------------------------- Paliguanidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Rieppel 1994]
----------------------------------------- Kuehneosauridae [phylogenetic position after Lee 2013a]
----------------------------------------- LEPIDOSAURIA [taxonomy after Uetz 2017 (with exceptions specified below); age constrain after Shedlock & Edwards 2009]
------------------------------------------ RHYNCHOCEPHALIA [phylogeny after Apesteguia & Novas 2003]
------------------------------------------- Gephyrosauridae
------------------------------------------- Pleurosauridae
------------------------------------------- Clevosauridae
------------------------------------------- Sphenodontidae
------------------------------------------ SQUAMATA [phylogeny after Wiens et al. 2012; age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------- Eichstaettisauridae
------------------------------------------- Dibamidae
------------------------------------------- Bavarisauridae
------------------------------------------- Ardeosauridae
------------------------------------------- GEKKOTA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
-------------------------------------------- PYGOPODOMORPHA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------- Pygopodidae
--------------------------------------------- Carphodactylidae
--------------------------------------------- Diplodactylidae
-------------------------------------------- GEKKOMORPHA
--------------------------------------------- Eublepharidae
--------------------------------------------- GEKKONOIDEA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------------- Sphaerodactylidae
---------------------------------------------- Gekkonidae
---------------------------------------------- Phyllodactylidae
------------------------------------------- UNIDENTATA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
-------------------------------------------- Paramacellodidae
-------------------------------------------- SCINCIFORMATA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------- Scincidae
--------------------------------------------- CORDYLOMORPHA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------------- Xantusiidae
---------------------------------------------- CORDYLOIDEA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
----------------------------------------------- Cordylidae
----------------------------------------------- Gerrhosauridae
-------------------------------------------- EPISQUAMATA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------- LATERATA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------------- TEIOIDEA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
----------------------------------------------- Chamopsiidae
----------------------------------------------- Gymnophthalmidae
----------------------------------------------- Alopoglossidae [phylogenetic position after Goicoechea et al. 2016]
----------------------------------------------- Teiidae
---------------------------------------------- LACERTIBAENIA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
----------------------------------------------- Lacertidae
----------------------------------------------- ANNULATA
------------------------------------------------ Rhineuridae
------------------------------------------------ AMPHISBAENIA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------- Bipedidae
------------------------------------------------- Cadeidae
------------------------------------------------- Blanidae
------------------------------------------------- AMPHISBAENOIDEA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
-------------------------------------------------- Trogonophiidae
-------------------------------------------------- Amphisbaenidae
--------------------------------------------- TOXICOFERA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
---------------------------------------------- Parasaniwidae [phylogenetic position after Yi & Norell 2013]
---------------------------------------------- ANGUIMORPHA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
----------------------------------------------- PALEOANGUIMORPHA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------ Shinisauridae
------------------------------------------------ Gobidermatidae [phylogenetic position after Nydam 2000]
------------------------------------------------ VARANOIDEA
------------------------------------------------- Lanthanotidae
------------------------------------------------- Varanidae
----------------------------------------------- NEOANGUIMORPHA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------ Helodermatidae
------------------------------------------------ Xenosauridae
------------------------------------------------ ANGUIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------- Diploglossidae
------------------------------------------------- Anguidae
------------------------------------------------- Anniellidae
---------------------------------------------- POLYGLYPHANODONTIA [phylogenetic position after Reedet et al. 2015]
----------------------------------------------- Polyglyphanodontidae
----------------------------------------------- Adamisauridae
---------------------------------------------- IGUANIA [phylogeny after Streicher et al. 2016; age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
----------------------------------------------- ACRODONTA [age constrain after Mulcahy et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------ Chamaleonidae
------------------------------------------------ Agamidae
----------------------------------------------- PLEURODONTA
------------------------------------------------ Phrynosomatidae
------------------------------------------------ Iguanidae
------------------------------------------------ Crotaphytidae
------------------------------------------------ Corytophanidae
------------------------------------------------ Tropiduridae
------------------------------------------------ Leiocephalidae
------------------------------------------------ Dactyloidae
------------------------------------------------ Polychrotidae
------------------------------------------------ Liolaemidae
------------------------------------------------ Hoplocercidae
------------------------------------------------ Opluridae
------------------------------------------------ Leiosauridae
---------------------------------------------- PYTHONOMORPHA
----------------------------------------------- MOSASAUROIDEA [phylogenetic position after Reedet et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------ Dolichosauridae
------------------------------------------------ Aigialosauridae
------------------------------------------------ Mosasauridae
----------------------------------------------- OPHIDIA
------------------------------------------------ Coniophidae [phylogenetic position after Hsiang et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------ SERPENTES [phylogeny after Streicher & Wiens, 2016; age constrain after Vidal et al. 2010]
------------------------------------------------- SCOLECOPHIDIA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2010]
-------------------------------------------------- Anomalepididae
-------------------------------------------------- Leptotyphlopidae [phylogenetic position after Vidal et al. 2010]
-------------------------------------------------- TYPHLOPOIDEA [phylogeny and age constrain after Vidal et al. 2010]
--------------------------------------------------- Gerrhopilidae
--------------------------------------------------- Typhlopidae
--------------------------------------------------- Xenotyphlopidae
------------------------------------------------- Dinilysiidae [phylogenetic position after Reedet et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------- ALETHINOPHIDIA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
-------------------------------------------------- Simoliophiidae [phylogenetic position after Tchernov et al. 2000]
-------------------------------------------------- Madtsoiidae [phylogenetic position after Reeder et al. 2015]
-------------------------------------------------- AMEROPHIDIA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
--------------------------------------------------- Pachyophiidae
--------------------------------------------------- Tropidophiidae
--------------------------------------------------- Aniliidae
-------------------------------------------------- AFROPHIDIA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
--------------------------------------------------- Palaeophidae [phylogenetic positiona fter McDowell 1987 and Rage 1987]
--------------------------------------------------- UROPELTOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------- Cylindrophiidae
---------------------------------------------------- Uropeltidae
---------------------------------------------------- Anomochilidae
--------------------------------------------------- Boidae
--------------------------------------------------- Bolyeriidae
--------------------------------------------------- Xenophidiidae [recognized after Vidal & Hedges 2009]
--------------------------------------------------- PYTHONOIDEA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
---------------------------------------------------- Xenopeltidae
---------------------------------------------------- Pythonidae
---------------------------------------------------- Loxocemidae
--------------------------------------------------- CAENOPHIDIA [phylogeny after Pyron et al. 2014; age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
---------------------------------------------------- Acrochordidae
---------------------------------------------------- COLUBROIDEA [age constrain after Vidal et al. 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- Xenodermatidae
----------------------------------------------------- Pareatidae
----------------------------------------------------- Viperidae
----------------------------------------------------- Homalopsidae
----------------------------------------------------- Lamprophiidae
----------------------------------------------------- Elapidae
----------------------------------------------------- Colubridae
----------------------------------------------------- Dipsadidae
----------------------------------------------------- Natricidae
----------------------------------------------------- Calamariidae [recognized for rendering Colubridae monophyletic after recognizing Natricidae, Dipsadidae and Pseudoxenodontidae as distinct families, after Steicher & Wiens]
----------------------------------------------------- Pseudoxenodontidae
---------------------------------------- ARCHELOSAURIA [age constrain after Hugall et al. 2007 (average value between amino-acid and nucleotide based estimates)]
----------------------------------------- Helveticosauridae [phylogenetic position after Chen et al. 2014]
----------------------------------------- THALATTOSAURIA [phylogeny after Müller 2005; phylogenetic position after Chen et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------ ASKEPTOSAUROIDEA
------------------------------------------- Endennasauridae
------------------------------------------- Askeptosauridae
------------------------------------------ THALATTOSAUROIDEA
------------------------------------------- Thalattosauridae
------------------------------------------- Claraziidae
----------------------------------------- CHORISTODERA [phylogeny after Gao & Fox 1998; phylogenetic position after Chen et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------ Hyphalosauridae
------------------------------------------ Monjurosuchidae
------------------------------------------ NEOCHORISTODERA
------------------------------------------- Champsosauridae
------------------------------------------- Simoedosauridae
----------------------------------------- ICHTHYOSAUROMORPHA [phylogeny after Fischer et al. 2012; phylogenetic position after Chen et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------ HUPEHSUCHIA
------------------------------------------- Nanchangosauridae
------------------------------------------- Hupehsuchidae
------------------------------------------ ICHTHYOPTERYGIA
------------------------------------------- Utatsusauridae
------------------------------------------- Omphalosauridae
------------------------------------------- EOICHTHYOSAURIA
-------------------------------------------- Grippidae
-------------------------------------------- ICHTHYOSAURIA [phylogeny after Maisch 2010]
--------------------------------------------- Cymbospondylidae
--------------------------------------------- Mixosauridae
--------------------------------------------- MERRIAMOSAURIA
---------------------------------------------- Besanosauridae
---------------------------------------------- Shonisauridae
---------------------------------------------- Shastasauridae
---------------------------------------------- EUICHTHYOSAURIA
----------------------------------------------- Californosauridae
----------------------------------------------- PARVIPELVIA
------------------------------------------------ Hudsonelpidiidae
------------------------------------------------ NEOICHTHYOSAURIA
------------------------------------------------- Temnodontosauridae
------------------------------------------------- Leptonectidae
------------------------------------------------- THUNNOSAURIA
-------------------------------------------------- Ichthyosauridae
-------------------------------------------------- Stenopterygidae
-------------------------------------------------- Ophthalmosauridae
----------------------------------------- EOSAUROPTERYGIA [phylogenetic position after Lee 2013a]
------------------------------------------ Saurosphargidae [phylogenetic position after Li et al. 2013]
------------------------------------------ SAUROPTERYGIA [higher level phylogeny after Rieppel 1998]
------------------------------------------- PLACODONTIA [phylogeny after Rieppel 2000]
-------------------------------------------- Paraplacodontidae
-------------------------------------------- Placodontidae
-------------------------------------------- CYAMODONTOIDEA
--------------------------------------------- Placochelyidae
--------------------------------------------- Henodontidae
--------------------------------------------- Cyamodontidae
------------------------------------------- EUSAUROPTERYGIA [phylogeny of basal families after Cheng et al. 2006]
-------------------------------------------- Pachypleurosauridae
-------------------------------------------- Keichousauridae [phylogenetic position after Liu et al. 2011 and Cheng et al. 2012]
-------------------------------------------- NOTHOSAURIA
--------------------------------------------- Simosauridae
--------------------------------------------- Nothosauridae
-------------------------------------------- PISTOSAUROIDEA
--------------------------------------------- Corosauridae
--------------------------------------------- PISTOSAURIA
---------------------------------------------- Pistosauridae
---------------------------------------------- PLESIOSAURIA [phylogeny after Benson & Druckenmiller 2014]
----------------------------------------------- Microclididae
----------------------------------------------- Rhomaleosauridae
----------------------------------------------- Pliosauridae
----------------------------------------------- Plesiosauridae
----------------------------------------------- CRYPTOCLIDIDA
------------------------------------------------ Cryptoclididae
------------------------------------------------ XENOPSARIA
------------------------------------------------- Elasmosauridae
------------------------------------------------- LEPTOCLEIDIA
-------------------------------------------------- Leptocleididae
-------------------------------------------------- Polycotylidae
----------------------------------------- PANTESTUDINES
------------------------------------------ Eunotosauridae [phylogenetic position after Lyson et al. 2013]
------------------------------------------ CHELONIA [phylogeny of extant families after Crawford et al. 2014; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Sterli 2008 and Zhou & Rabi 2013]
------------------------------------------- Odontochelyidae
------------------------------------------- TESTUDINES [taxonomy of extant families after Uetz 2017]
-------------------------------------------- Proganochelyidae
-------------------------------------------- Proterochersidae [phylogenetic position after Rabi et al. 2013]
-------------------------------------------- Kayentachelyidae
-------------------------------------------- MEIOLANIIFORMES
--------------------------------------------- Mongolochelyidae
--------------------------------------------- Kallokibotiidae
--------------------------------------------- Meiolaniidae
-------------------------------------------- CASICHELYDIA
--------------------------------------------- Thalassemydidae
--------------------------------------------- Plesiochelyidae
--------------------------------------------- Sinemydidae
--------------------------------------------- Pleurosternidae
--------------------------------------------- Sandownidae [phylogenetic position after Cadena 2015]
--------------------------------------------- Macrobaenidae
--------------------------------------------- Baenidae
--------------------------------------------- PLEURODIRA
---------------------------------------------- Platychelidae [phylogenetic position after Gaffney et al. 2006]
---------------------------------------------- Dortokidae [phylogenetic position after Gaffney et al. 2006]
---------------------------------------------- EUPLEURODIRA
----------------------------------------------- Chelidae
----------------------------------------------- PANPELOMEDUSOIDES
------------------------------------------------ Araripemydidae [phylogenetic position after Cadena et al. 2011]
------------------------------------------------ PELOMEDUSOIDES
------------------------------------------------- Pelomedusidae
------------------------------------------------- PODOCNEMIDOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------- Bothremydidae
-------------------------------------------------- Podocnemididae
--------------------------------------------- CRYPTODIRA
---------------------------------------------- Nanhsiungchelyidae
---------------------------------------------- Adocidae
---------------------------------------------- TRIONYCHOIDEA
----------------------------------------------- Carettochelyidae
----------------------------------------------- Trionychidae
---------------------------------------------- DUROCRYPTODIRA
----------------------------------------------- TESTUDINOIDEA
------------------------------------------------ Lindholmemydidae [phylogenetic position after Danilov & Parham 2005]
------------------------------------------------ EMYSTERNIA
------------------------------------------------- Platysternidae
------------------------------------------------- Emydidae
------------------------------------------------ TESTUGURIA
------------------------------------------------- Testudinidae
------------------------------------------------- Geoemydidae
----------------------------------------------- AMERICHELYDIA
------------------------------------------------ CHELYDROIDEA
------------------------------------------------- Chelydridae
------------------------------------------------- KINOSTERNOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------- Dermatemydidae
-------------------------------------------------- Kinosternidae
------------------------------------------------ CHELONIOIDEA
------------------------------------------------- Toxochelyidae [phylogenetic position after Joyce et al. 2004]
------------------------------------------------- Osteopygidae [phylogenetic position after Parham & Pyenson 2010]
------------------------------------------------- Cheloniidae
------------------------------------------------- DERMOCHELYOIDEA [phylogeny after Elliot et al. 1997]
-------------------------------------------------- Dermochelyidae
-------------------------------------------------- Protostegidae
-------------------------------------------------- Desmatochelyidae
----------------------------------------- ARCHOSAUROMORPHA [higher level phylogeny of extinct taxa after Ezcurra et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------ TRILOPHOSAURIA
------------------------------------------- Teraterpetonidae [phylogenetic position after Sues 2002]
------------------------------------------- Trilophosauridae
------------------------------------------ PROTOROSAURIA
------------------------------------------- Sharovipterygidae [phylogenetic position after unwin et al 2000]
------------------------------------------- Protorosauridae
------------------------------------------- Drepanosauridae [phylogenetic position after Dilkes 1998]
------------------------------------------- Macrocnemidae
------------------------------------------- Tanystropheidae
------------------------------------------ RHYNCHOSAURIA
------------------------------------------- Mesosuchidae
------------------------------------------- Rhynchosauridae
------------------------------------------- Hyperodapedontidae
------------------------------------------ Prolacertidae
------------------------------------------ ARCHOSAURIFORMES [phylogeny of basal families after Brusatte et al. 2008]
------------------------------------------- Proterosuchidae
------------------------------------------- Erythrosuchidae
------------------------------------------- AVESUCHIA
-------------------------------------------- Euparkeriidae
-------------------------------------------- Doswelliidae
-------------------------------------------- PROTEROCHAMPSIA
--------------------------------------------- Proterochampsidae
--------------------------------------------- Rhadinosuchidae
-------------------------------------------- ARCHOSAURIA [age constrain after Janke et al. 2001]
--------------------------------------------- Phytosauridae
--------------------------------------------- PSEUDOSUCHIA [phylogeny of basal families after Brusatte et al. 2008]
---------------------------------------------- Ticinosuchidae [phylogenetic position after Brusatte et al. 2010]
---------------------------------------------- Prestosuchidae
---------------------------------------------- Ornithosuchidae
---------------------------------------------- Gracilisuchidae [phylogenetic position after Butler et al. 2014]
---------------------------------------------- Rauisuchidae
---------------------------------------------- AETOSAURIA
----------------------------------------------- Stagonolepididae
----------------------------------------------- Batrachopodidae
---------------------------------------------- POPOSAUROIDEA
----------------------------------------------- Ctenosauriscidae
----------------------------------------------- Lotosauridae
----------------------------------------------- Poposauridae
----------------------------------------------- Shuvosauridae
---------------------------------------------- BATHYOTICA
----------------------------------------------- Erpetosuchidae
----------------------------------------------- CROCODYLOMORPHA
------------------------------------------------ Sphenosuchidae
------------------------------------------------ Hallopodidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Wagner 1970]
------------------------------------------------ Pedeticosauridae [tentative phylogenetic position after Clark & Sues 2002]
------------------------------------------------ Saltoposuchidae
------------------------------------------------ CROCODYLIFORMES [phylogeny of extinct families after Bronzati et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------- Protosuchidae
------------------------------------------------- Gobiosuchidae
------------------------------------------------- Shartegosuchidae
------------------------------------------------- Hsisosuchidae
------------------------------------------------- MESOEUCROCODYLIA
-------------------------------------------------- NOTOSUCHIA
--------------------------------------------------- Araripesuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Uruguaysuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Libycosuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Candidodontidae
--------------------------------------------------- Comahuesuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Notosuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Chimaerasuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Sphagesauridae
--------------------------------------------------- SEBECOSUCHIA
---------------------------------------------------- Baurusuchidae
---------------------------------------------------- Iberosuchidae
---------------------------------------------------- Sebecosuchidae
-------------------------------------------------- PEIROSAUROIDEA
-------------------------------------------------- Itasuchidae
-------------------------------------------------- Peirosauridae
-------------------------------------------------- Mahajangasuchidae
-------------------------------------------------- NEOSUCHIA
--------------------------------------------------- Goniopholididae
--------------------------------------------------- Brillanceausuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Atoposauridae
--------------------------------------------------- TETHYSUCHIA
---------------------------------------------------- Pholidosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- Dyrosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- THALATTOSUCHIA
---------------------------------------------------- Metriorhynchidae
---------------------------------------------------- Pelagosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- Teleosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- Paralligatoridae
--------------------------------------------------- Stomatosuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Susisuchidae
--------------------------------------------------- Bernissartiidae
--------------------------------------------------- EUSUCHIA
---------------------------------------------------- Hylaeochampsidae
---------------------------------------------------- Allodaposuchidae [phylogenetic position after Narváez et al. 2015]
---------------------------------------------------- CROCODYLIA [phylogeny of extant families after Janke et al. 2005; phylogenetic position of extinct families after Salisbury et al. 2006; taxonomy of extant families after Uetz 2017]
----------------------------------------------------- Aegyptosuchidae [phylogenetic position after Holliday & Gardner 2012]
----------------------------------------------------- Planocraniidae [phylogenetic position after Blanco et al 2014]
----------------------------------------------------- Pristichampsidae
----------------------------------------------------- ALLIGATOROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Leidyosuchidae
------------------------------------------------------ Diplocynodontidae
------------------------------------------------------ Alligatoridae
----------------------------------------------------- CROCODYLOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Crocodylidae
------------------------------------------------------ Mekosuchidae
----------------------------------------------------- GAVIALOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Thoracosauridae
------------------------------------------------------ Gavialidae
--------------------------------------------- AVEMETATARSALIA [mopophyly after Hone & Benton 2007]
---------------------------------------------- Teleocrateridae [phylogenetic position after Nesbitt et al. 2017]
---------------------------------------------- Scleromochlidae
---------------------------------------------- PTEROSAURIA [phylogeny after Andres et al. 2014; phylogenetic position after Bennett 1996]
----------------------------------------------- EOPTEROSAURIA
------------------------------------------------ Eudimorphodontidae
------------------------------------------------ Raeticodactylidae
----------------------------------------------- MACRONYCHOPTERA
------------------------------------------------ Dimorphodontidae
------------------------------------------------ NOVIALOIDEA
------------------------------------------------- Campylognathoididae
------------------------------------------------- LONCHOGNATHIA
-------------------------------------------------- Rhamphorhynchidae
-------------------------------------------------- MONOFENESTRATA
--------------------------------------------------- Wukongopteridae
--------------------------------------------------- CAELIDRACONES
---------------------------------------------------- Anurognathidae
---------------------------------------------------- PTERODACTYLOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------- ARCHAEOPTERODACTYLOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Germanodactylidae
------------------------------------------------------ CTENOCHASMATIA
------------------------------------------------------- Pterodactylidae
------------------------------------------------------- CTENOCHASMATOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------- Gallodactylidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Ctenochasmatidae
----------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOCHEIROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ AZHDARCHOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------- Tapejaridae
------------------------------------------------------- NEOAZHDARCHIA
-------------------------------------------------------- DSUNGARIPTEROMORPHA
--------------------------------------------------------- Thalassodromidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Dsungaripteridae
-------------------------------------------------------- NEOPTERODACTYLOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------- Chaoyangopteridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Azhdarchidae
------------------------------------------------------ PTERANODONTIA
------------------------------------------------------- Nyctosauridae
------------------------------------------------------- PTERANODONTOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------- Pteranodontidae
-------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOCHEIROMORPHA
--------------------------------------------------------- Lonchodectidae
--------------------------------------------------------- LANCEODONTIA
---------------------------------------------------------- Istiodactylidae
---------------------------------------------------------- ANHANGUERIA
----------------------------------------------------------- Boreopteridae
----------------------------------------------------------- Cearadactylidae
----------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOCHEIRAE
------------------------------------------------------------ Anhangueridae
------------------------------------------------------------ Ornithocheiridae
---------------------------------------------- DINOSAUROMORPHA [phylogeny of basal families after Benton & Walker 2011]
----------------------------------------------- Lagerpetonidae
----------------------------------------------- DINOSAURIFORMES
------------------------------------------------ Lagosuchidae
------------------------------------------------ Silesauridae
------------------------------------------------ DINOSAURIA [higher level phylogeny after Baron et al. 2017]
------------------------------------------------- Guaibasauridae [phylogenetic position after Sues et al. 2011]
------------------------------------------------- HERRERASAURIA [phylogenetic position after Sues et al. 2011]
-------------------------------------------------- Herrerasauridae
-------------------------------------------------- Staurikosauridae
------------------------------------------------- SAUROPODOMORPHA [phylogeny of basal families after Apaldetti et al. 2011 and Yates et al. 2010]
-------------------------------------------------- Thecodontosauridae
-------------------------------------------------- PLATEOSAURIA
--------------------------------------------------- Plateosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- MASSOPODA
---------------------------------------------------- Riojasauridae
---------------------------------------------------- Gryponychidae
---------------------------------------------------- ANCHISAURIA
----------------------------------------------------- Massospondylidae
----------------------------------------------------- Yunnanosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- Anchisauridae
----------------------------------------------------- Melanorosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- SAUROPODA
------------------------------------------------------ Blikanasauridae
------------------------------------------------------ GRAVISAURIA
------------------------------------------------------- Vulcanodontidae
------------------------------------------------------- EUSAUROPODA
-------------------------------------------------------- Barapasauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Cetiosauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Mamenchisauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Tendaguriidae
-------------------------------------------------------- NEOSAUROPODA
--------------------------------------------------------- Haplocanthosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Agustiniidae
--------------------------------------------------------- DIPLODOCIMORPHA [phylogeny after Rauhut et al. 2005]
---------------------------------------------------------- Amphicoeliidae
---------------------------------------------------------- DIPLODOCOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------- Rebbachisauridae
---------------------------------------------------------- FLAGELLICAUDATA
----------------------------------------------------------- Diplodocidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Dicraeosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------- MACRONARIA [phylogeny after Barco 2010 and Carballido et al. 2013]
---------------------------------------------------------- Camarasauridae
---------------------------------------------------------- TITANOSAURIFORMES
----------------------------------------------------------- Huanghetitanidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Bothriospondylidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Pleurocoelidae
----------------------------------------------------------- Brachiosauridae
----------------------------------------------------------- SOMPHOSPONDYLI
------------------------------------------------------------ Euhelopodidae
------------------------------------------------------------ TITANOSAURIA [phylogeny after Bonaparte et al. 2006, Calvo et al. 2007, Calvo et al. 2008 and Santucci & De Arruda-Campos 2011]
------------------------------------------------------------- Chubutisauridae
------------------------------------------------------------- Andesauridae
------------------------------------------------------------- LITHOSTROTIA
-------------------------------------------------------------- Antarctosauridae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Huabeisauridae
-------------------------------------------------------------- EUTITANOSAURIA
--------------------------------------------------------------- Nemegtosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Aeolosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Saltasauridae
--------------------------------------------------------------- Argyrosauridae
------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOSCELIDA
-------------------------------------------------- ORNITHISCHIA [higher level phylogeny after Boyd 2015; Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Boyd et al. 2011 are strongly supported by Butler et al. 2008 and are thus represented here]
--------------------------------------------------- Pisanosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- Heterodontosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- Lesothosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- THYREOPHORA
---------------------------------------------------- Scutellosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- THYREOPHOROIDEA
----------------------------------------------------- Scelidosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- STEGOSAURIA
------------------------------------------------------ Huayangosauridae
------------------------------------------------------ Stegosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- ANKYLOSAURIA [phylogeny after Carpenter 2001]
------------------------------------------------------ Nodosauridae
------------------------------------------------------ ANKYLOSAUROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------- Ankylosauridae
------------------------------------------------------- Polacanthidae
--------------------------------------------------- Fabrosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- NEORNITHISCHIA [Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Boyd et al. 2015 are strongly supported by Butler et al. 2011 and are thus represented here]
---------------------------------------------------- Jeholosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- Thescelosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOPODA
----------------------------------------------------- Hypsilophodontidae
----------------------------------------------------- Gasparinisauridae
----------------------------------------------------- IGUANODONTIA
------------------------------------------------------ Rhabdodontidae
------------------------------------------------------ EUIGUANODONTIA
------------------------------------------------------- Dryosauridae
------------------------------------------------------- ANKYLOPOLLEXIA [phylogeny and phylogenetic position after McDonald 2012]
-------------------------------------------------------- Camptosauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- IGUANODONTOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------- Iguanodontidae
--------------------------------------------------------- HADROSAUROIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------- Probactrosauridae
---------------------------------------------------------- Hadrosauridae
---------------------------------------------------- MARGINOCEPHALIA
----------------------------------------------------- Stenopelixidae
----------------------------------------------------- Pachycephalosauridae [=Homalocephalidae]
----------------------------------------------------- CERATOPSIA [phylogeny after Makovicky & Norell 2006]
------------------------------------------------------ Chaoyangsauridae
------------------------------------------------------ Psittacosauridae
------------------------------------------------------ NEOCERATOPSIA
------------------------------------------------------- Archaeoceratopidae
------------------------------------------------------- CORONOSAURIA
-------------------------------------------------------- Protoceratopidae
-------------------------------------------------------- Leptoceratopidae
-------------------------------------------------------- CERATOPSOMORPHA
--------------------------------------------------------- Zuniceratopidae
--------------------------------------------------------- Ceratopsidae
-------------------------------------------------- THEROPODA [higher level phylogeny after Cau et al. 2015; Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Cau et al. 2015 are strongly supported by Godefroit etl al. 2013 and are thus represented here]
--------------------------------------------------- COELOPHYSOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------- Coelophysidae
---------------------------------------------------- Dilophosauridae
--------------------------------------------------- AVEROSTRA
---------------------------------------------------- NEOCERATOSAURIA [phylogeny after Pol & Rauhut 2012]
----------------------------------------------------- Ceratosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- ABELISAUROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Abelisauridae
------------------------------------------------------ Noasauridae
---------------------------------------------------- TETANURAE
----------------------------------------------------- Iliosuchidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Benson 2009]
----------------------------------------------------- MEGALOSAUROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------ Piatnitzkysauridae [phylogenetic position after Carrano et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------------ MEGALOSAURIA
------------------------------------------------------- Spinosauridae [=Baryonichidae, Irritatoridae]
------------------------------------------------------- Megalosauridae
----------------------------------------------------- AVETHEROPODA
------------------------------------------------------ CARNOSAURIA [phylogeny after Benson et al. 2010]
------------------------------------------------------- Erectopodidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Allain 2005]
------------------------------------------------------- Sinraptoridae [=Metriacanthosauridae]
------------------------------------------------------- Allosauridae
------------------------------------------------------- CARCHARODONTOSAURIA
------------------------------------------------------- Neovenatoridae [including Bahariasauridae after Motta et al. 2016]
-------------------------------------------------------- Carcharodontosauridae
------------------------------------------------------ COELUROSAURIA
------------------------------------------------------- TYRANNOSAUROIDEA [phylogeny after Brusatte & Benson 2013]
-------------------------------------------------------- Coeluridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Proceratosauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Dryptosauridae
-------------------------------------------------------- Tyrannosauridae
--------------------------------------------------------
------------------------------------------------------- Ornitholestidae
------------------------------------------------------- Compsognathidae
------------------------------------------------------- MANIRAPTORIFORMES
-------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOMIMOSAURIA
--------------------------------------------------------- Nqwebasauridae
--------------------------------------------------------- Harpymimidae
--------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOMIMOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------- Deinocheiridae [phylogenetic position after Lee et al. 2014]
---------------------------------------------------------- Ornithomimidae
-------------------------------------------------------- MANIRAPTORA
--------------------------------------------------------- Alvarezsauridae
--------------------------------------------------------- AVEAIRFOILA
---------------------------------------------------------- THERIZINOSAUROIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------- Alxasauridae
----------------------------------------------------------- Therizinosauridae
---------------------------------------------------------- PENNARAPTORA
----------------------------------------------------------- OVIRAPTOROSAURIA
------------------------------------------------------------ Avimimidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Caudipterygidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Caenagnathidae
------------------------------------------------------------ Oviraptoridae
----------------------------------------------------------- PARAVES
------------------------------------------------------------ Scansoriopterygidae
------------------------------------------------------------ EUMANIRAPTORA
------------------------------------------------------------- Yandangornithidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Zhou & Zhang 2007]
------------------------------------------------------------- Troodontidae
------------------------------------------------------------- Dromaeosauridae
------------------------------------------------------------- AVES
-------------------------------------------------------------- Archaeopterygidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- Jeholornithidae [phylogenetic position after Lefèvre et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------- Rahonavidae
-------------------------------------------------------------- AVEBREVICAUDA [Note: some of the poorly supported clades in Cau et al. 2015 are strongly supported by O'Connor et al. 2013 and are thus represented here]
--------------------------------------------------------------- Omnivoropterygidae
--------------------------------------------------------------- PYGOSTYLIA
---------------------------------------------------------------- Confuciusornithidae
---------------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHOTHORACES
----------------------------------------------------------------- ENANTIORNITHES [phylogenetic position after O'Connor et al. 2010 and You et al. 2010]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Iberomesornithidae [=Concornithidae]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Pengornithidae [phylogenetic position after Hu et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Protopterygidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Liaoxiornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Longipterygidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Cuspirostrisornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Cathayornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Liaoningornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ EOENANTIORNITHIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------- Bohaiornithidae [phylogenetic position after Wang et al. 2014]
------------------------------------------------------------------- Eoenantiornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ ENANTIORNITHIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------- Enantiornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- Avisauridae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Alexornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Zhyraornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Gobipterygidae
----------------------------------------------------------------- ORNITHUROMORPHA [phylogeny of basal families after Zhou et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Patagopterygidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Hongshanornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Ambiortidae [phylogenetic position after You et al. 2006]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Songlingornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ Apsaravidae [phylogenetic position after Clarke & Norell 2002]
------------------------------------------------------------------ Gansuidae
------------------------------------------------------------------ ORNITHURAE
------------------------------------------------------------------- Ichthyornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- HESPERORNITHIFORMES
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Brodavidae [phylogenetic position after Martin et al. 2012]
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Enaliornithidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Baptornithidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Hesperornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------- NEORNITHES [higher level phylogeny after Jarvis et al. 2014; age constrain after van Tuinen 2009b]
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Cimolopterygidae [phylogenetic position after Longrich et al. 2011]
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Eremopezidae [phylogenetic position after consensus Rasmussen et al, 2001; Cracraft et al, 2004, & Livezey 1986]
-------------------------------------------------------------------- PALAEOGNATHAE [phylogeny after Smith et al. 2012; age constrain after Phillips et al. 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Struthionidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTOPALAEOGNATHAE [age constrain after Phillips et al. 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Palaeotididae [consensus phylogenetic position after Cracraft et al. 2004, Dyke & Van Tuinen 2004 and Mayr 2015]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- RHEIFORMES
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Opisthodactylidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Rheidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Lithornithidae [phylogenetic position after Worthy et al. 2016]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Tinamidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------- DINORNITHIFORMES [phylogeny and age constrain after Bunce et al. 2010]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Megalapterygidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Dinornithidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Emeidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------- NOVAERATITES [age constrain after Phillips et al. 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Apterygidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Aepyornithidae [phylogenetic position after Mitchell et al. 2014]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- CASUARIIFORMES [age constrain after Phillips et al. 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Dromaiidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Casuariidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------- NEOGNATHAE [age constrain after van Tuinen 2009b]
--------------------------------------------------------------------- Pelagornithidae [phylogenetic position after Bourdon 2005 and Mayr 2009b]
--------------------------------------------------------------------- GALLOANSERAE [age constrain after Pereira & Baker 2006]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- ANSERIMORPHAE
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Gastornithidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- ANSERIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Anhimidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ ANSERES [age constrain after Pereira & Baker 2006]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Presbyornithidae [phylogenetic position after Worthy et al. 2016]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anseranatidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anatidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------- Dromornithidae [phylogenetic position after Worthy et al. 2016]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- GALLIFORMES [phylogeny after Kimball & Braun 2008 and Wang et al. 2013; age constrain of crown group after Pereira & Baker 2009]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Quercymegapodidae [phylogenetic position after Dyke & Gulas 2002]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Sylviornithidae [phylogenetic position after Worthy et al. 2016]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Megapodiidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Cracidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- PHASIANOIDEA [age constrain after Pereira & Baker 2006]
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Numididae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Phasianidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Odontophoridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------- NEOAVES [taxonomy of extant families after Gill & Donsker 2014 with some exceptions as specified below]
---------------------------------------------------------------------- COLUMBEA
----------------------------------------------------------------------- MIRANDORNITHES
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Podicipedidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ PHOENICOPTERIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Palaelodidae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2004b]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phoenicopteridae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- COLUMBIMORPHAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Columbidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Mesitornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pteroclididae
---------------------------------------------------------------------- PASSEREA
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Foratidae [tentative phylogenetic position after Olson 1992]
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Hoazinoididae [tentative phylogenetic position after Rasmussen 1997]
------------------------------------------------------------------------ ORIDIMORPHAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Otididae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Musophagidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cuculidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ STRISORES [phylogeny after Prum et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Caprimulgidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Steatornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nyctibiidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- PODARGIFORMES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fluvioviridavidae [Nesbitt et al. 2011]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Podargidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- DAEDALORNITHES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aegothelidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- APODIFORMES [age constrain after van Tuinen 2009a]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- TROCHILI
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cypselavidae [phylogenetic position after Dyke 2001]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Trochilidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- APODI
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hemiprocnidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Apodidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- GRUAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Opisthocomidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ CURSORIMORPHAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------- GRUES [age constrain after Houde 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- GRUOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psophiidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ergilornithidae [phylogenetic position after Clarke et al. 2005]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gruidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aramidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Messelornithidae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2004a]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- RALLOIDEA [age constrain after Houde 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sarothruridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Heliornithidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aptornithidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rallidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHARADRIIFORMES [phylogeny after Baker et al. 2007 and Fain & Houde ]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHIONIDI
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Burhinidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pluvianellidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chionididae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHARADRII [phylogeny after Baker et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pluvianidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Charadriidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Recurvirostridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Haematopodidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ibidorhynchidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCOLOPACI
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Scolopacidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- THINOCORI
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pedionomidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thinocoridae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- JACANOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Jacanidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rostratulidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Turnicidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Glareolidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dromadidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Laridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alcidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Stercorariidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- PHAETHONTIMORPHAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Phaethontidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ EURYPYGIFORMES [age constrain after Houde 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhynochetidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eurypygidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- AEQUORNITHIA
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Gaviidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ AEQUORNITHES
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Plotopteridae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2005a and Olson 1980]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROCELLARIIMORPHAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Spheniscidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- PROCELLARIIFORMES [phylogeny after Prum et al. 2015]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tytthostonychidae [phylogenetic position after Olson & Parris 1987]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diomedeidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oceanitidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hydrobatidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Procellariidae [including Pelecanoididae after Prum et al. 2015]
------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ciconiidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- PELECANIMORPHAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- SULIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fregatidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- SULOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Protoplotidae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2009b]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sulidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- PHALACROCORACOIDEA
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phalacrocoracidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anhingidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- PELECANIFORMES [phylogeny after Hackett et al. 2008]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Threskiornithidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ardeidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Scopidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pelecanidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Balaenicipitidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------- TERRESTRORNITHES
------------------------------------------------------------------------ Zygodactylidae [phylogenetic position after DeBee 2012]
------------------------------------------------------------------------ AFROAVES
------------------------------------------------------------------------- ACCIPITRIMORPHAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- CATHARTOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Teratornithidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cathartidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- ACCIPITRIFORMES [age constrain after Brown & Mindell 2009a]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sagittariidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- ACCIPITRI [age constrain after Brown & Mindell 2009a]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pandionidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Accipitridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- STRIGIFORMES [age constrain of crown group after Brown & Mindell 2009b]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Protostrigidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sophiornithidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ogygoptyngidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Strigidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tytonidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- CORACIIMORPHAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- COLIIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sandcoleidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Coliidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUCAVITAVES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Leptosomatidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- CAVITAVES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Trogonidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- PICOCORACIAE
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- BUCEROTIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ BUCEROTIDES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bucorvidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bucerotidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ UPUPAE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Messelirrisoridae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2000]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Upupidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phoeniculidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- PICODYNASTORNITHES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ CORACIIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HALCYONES
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Todidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Momotidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alcedinidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CORACIOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Meropidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Primobucconidae [phylogenetic position after Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré 2004]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Geranopteridae [phylogenetic position after Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré 2004]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Coraciidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Brachypteraciidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PICIFORMES
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GALBULAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bucconidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Galbulidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PICI
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PICOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Picidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Indicatoridae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RAMPHASTOIDEA [phylogeny after Moyle 2004]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Megalaimidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lybiidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ramphastidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Capitonidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Semnornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------ AUSTRALAVES
------------------------------------------------------------------------- CARIAMAE [phylogeny after Mayr 2005b]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ameghinornithidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bathornithidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phorusrhacidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cariamidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUFALCONIMORPHAE
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- FALCONIFORMES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Masillaraptoridae [tentative phylogenetic position after Mayr 2009a]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- Falconidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- PSITTACOPASSERAE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- PANPSITTACIFORMES
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Messelasturidae [phylogenetic position after Mayr 2011]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- PSITTACIFORMES [phylogeny after Wright et al. 2008]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Strigopidae [=Nestoridae]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cacatuidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- PSITTACOIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Psittaculidae [circumscription after Kundu et al. 2012]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Psittacidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- PASSERIFORMES [higher level phylogeny after Treplin et al. 2008; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Acanthisittidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUPASSERES
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYRANNI [higher level phylogeny after Chesser 2004; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ EURYLAIMIDES [phylogeny after Selvatti et al. 2016; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sapayoidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Calyptomenidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pittidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eurylaimidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ TYRANNIDES [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYRANNIDA [phylogeny after Prum et al. 2015; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pipridae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cotingidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oxyruncidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tityridae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tyrannidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FURNARIIDES [phylogeny after Moyle et al. 2009; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Melanopareiidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Conopophagidae [phylogenetic position after Irestedt 2002]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thamnophilidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FURNARIOIDEA [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Furnariidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Formicariidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GRALLARIOIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhinocryptidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Grallariidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------- PASSERI [higher level phylogeny after Beresford et al. 2005, Chesser & ten Have 2007 and Irestedt & Ohlson 2008; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ MENUROIDEA
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Menuridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Atrichornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Climacteridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Ptilonorhynchidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ MELIPHAGOIDEA [phylogeny after Marki et al. 2017; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dasyornithidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Acanthizidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Maluridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pardalotidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Meliphagidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Pomatostomidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Orthonychidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Cnemophilidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Melanocharitidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Callaeidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Notiomystidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ CORVOIDEA [phylogeny after Aggerbeck et al. 2014; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mohouidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pachycephalidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oreoicidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cinclosomatidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eulacestomatidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Neosittidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Oriolidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paramythiidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Psophodidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vireonidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhipiduridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dicruridae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Monarchidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Corvidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Laniidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ifritidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Melampittidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Corcoracidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paradisaeidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Campephagidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MALACONOTOIDEA [phylogeny after Fuchs et al. 2012; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Machaerirhynchidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Artamidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhagologidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aegithinidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Malaconotidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pityriaseidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Platysteiridae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prionopidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vangidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------ PASSERIDA [higher level phylogeny after Ericson & Johansson 2003]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Petroicidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PICATHARTOIDEA
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Picathartidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chaetopidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eupetidae
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- EUPASSERI [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hyliotidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Regulidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Stenostiridae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PAROIDEA
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Remizidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SYLVIOIDEA [phylogeny after Fregin et al. 2012; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nicatoridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Alaudidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Panuridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Macrosphenidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cisticolidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hirundinidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pycnonotidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Acrocephalidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pnoepygidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Locustellidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Donacobiidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bernieridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sylviidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Zosteropidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pellorneidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Timaliidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Leiothrichidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phylloscopidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hyliidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aegithalidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Erythrocercidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cettiidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Scotocercidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Elachuridae [phylogenetic position Alström et al. 2014]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- MUSCICAPOIDEA [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CERTHIOIDEA [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Certhiidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sittidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tichodromadidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Polioptilidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Troglodytidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BOMBYCILLOIDEA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dulidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hypocoliidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mohoidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ptilogonatidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Bombycillidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hylocitreidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- STURNOIDEA [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Buphagidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sturnidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mimidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cinclidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Turdidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Muscicapidae
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PASSEROIDEA [higher level phylogeny after Fjeldså et al. 2010; age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Promeropidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Arcanatoridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Urocynchramidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chloropseidae [phylogenetic position after Moltesen et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Irenidae [phylogenetic position after Moltesen et al. 2012]
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nectarinidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Dicaeidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Prunellidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Peucedramidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Estrildidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Viduidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Ploceidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Passeridae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Motacillidae
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- FRINGILLOIDEA [age constrain after Cracraft & Barker 2009]
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fringillidae
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- EMBERIZOIDEA [phylogeny and taxonomy after Barker et al. 2013]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Calcariidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhodinocichlidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Emberizidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Passerellidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Calyptophilidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Spindalidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nesospingidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Phaenicophilidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mitrospingidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Cardinalidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Thraupidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Zeledoniidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Teretistridae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Icteriidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Parulidae
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Icteridae